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Warnings: Serious Questions for JWs Who Think they Want to Stay!

2020.09.25 17:36 StarTemple Warnings: Serious Questions for JWs Who Think they Want to Stay!

You MUST Ask Yourself Some Very Serious Questions Now!
Q: Do you think GB Pied Piper "obey the org no matter how crazy it will sound" is normal and balanced sanity even now?
WT quote (WT 11/15/2013, pg. 20, par. 17, #3):
“”Elders who are reading this article can draw some useful conclusions from the account we have just considered:…
[And sandwiched into the admonishment:]
(3) At that time, the lifesaving direction that we receive from Jehovah’s organization may not appear practical from a human standpoint. All of us must be ready to obey any instructions we may receive, whether these appear sound from a strategic or human standpoint or not.
WT Simplified Version
(3) At that time, the direction that you receive from Jehovah’s organization may seem strange or unusual. But all of us must be ready to obey any instructions we may receive, whether we agree with them or not, because obeying these instructions will save our lives.
Q: Do you want to blindly obey any insanity to come from WT in the future?
Q: Is there one shred of evidence the "Governing Body of JWs" (GB) is any "saner" than David Koresh, Jim Jones, or Marshall Applewhite?
The worst case scenario is ANYONE getting caught in the WT self-implosion end phase, will become stuck in a potentially very dangerous development.
Q: Do you want to take forth an "end of the world" "hailstone message" and become a global laughing stock with JWs?
WT quote (WT 07/15/2015, pg. 16, par. 9):
9 This will not be the time to preach the “good news of the Kingdom.” That time will have passed. The time for “the end” will have come! (Matthew 24:14) No doubt God’s people will proclaim a hard-hitting judgment message. This may well involve a declaration announcing that Satan’s wicked world is about to come to its complete end.
Q: Do you want to be sent with the JW Lemmings into a crazy "the end of the world" "final mission" and then to the "JW Bunkers" as GB safe houses which you can bet will NOT be safe at all, with the JW Lemmings?
WT quote (WT 07/15/2015, pg. 16, par. 7-8):
7 What will happen after the destruction of false religious organizations? It will be a time to reveal what is really in our heart. The majority of mankind will seek refuge in human organizations that are likened to “the rocks of the mountains.” (Revelation 6:15-17) Figuratively speaking, however, God’s people will flee to the refuge that Jehovah provides. In the first century, the interval was not a time for a mass conversion of Jews to Christianity. It was a time for action and obedience on the part of those who were already Christians. Similarly, we cannot expect that the future interruption in the great tribulation will result in an influx of new believers. Rather, it will be an opportunity for all true believers to prove their love for Jehovah and give their support to Christ’s brothers.—Matthew 25:34-40.
8 Although we do not fully understand all that will happen during that time of test, we can expect that it will involve some measure of sacrifice. In the first century, Christians had to leave behind their possessions and endure hardships in order to survive. (Mark 13:15-18) To remain faithful, will we be willing to experience material loss? Will we be ready to do whatever is required of us to prove our loyalty to Jehovah?
You may not have heard of the WT "bunker plan", but it is NOT good. And that above scenario is when it will go into action and that is part of the "obey as crazy as it may sound" setup.
Q: Are you willing to abandon your house and everything else to go to prison or worse with JWs?
And as you can see here:
The Watchtower October 2019
14 During the great tribulation, a change will take place regarding the brothers who take the lead on earth. At some point, all anointed ones who are still on earth will be gathered to heaven to share in the war of Armageddon. (Matt. 24:31; Rev. 2:26, 27) This means that the Governing Body will no longer be with us on earth. However, the great crowd will remain organized. Capable brothers from among the other sheep will take the lead. We will need to show our loyalty by supporting these brothers and by following their God-given direction. Our survival will depend on it!
The GB also has their own coming "disappearance" "covered" as well.
Q: Do you want to get trapped in the global WTBTS liquidation under a FAKE "end of the world" "self fulfilling prophecy" SMOKESCREEN?
Q: Do you really think YOUR SURVIVAL depends on the fleeing GB and imploding WTBTS corporation?
Imo, when they go to game day, WTBTS will become unstable, GB Pied Piper-like, and very very dangerous worldwide, for real. The cult is in its manic phase of insanity now building.
THAT is why you should flee WT like you are fleeing the Titanic NOW. No joke.

There are [recent] JWs studying or some non-JW who knows one studying who may not have known just how crazy this thing has gotten since 2012. Most JWs remain oblivious as well. These are the questions WT is also asking you.
And this is how they have built up the fake prophecy hype since 2012, for this final date with fate coming up.
These "little details" can slip by some people even in the xJW development, because they are slipped in every now and then very gradually, so as to try to stay low profile. But, these are all red flags, in fact the whole watchtower is painted RED now.
But altogether, now after 8 years of this cult manic phase maturing, like in the links above outline, now it is what it is: A WT GB Pied Piper setup for JW Lemming disaster bar nore.
I truly hope you will bail TODAY like you he exiting the Titanic while it is still in port. (Matt24:15) It is NOT safe!
submitted by StarTemple to exjw [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 06:54 assousa The UAE-Israel deal’s historicity is in the fine print

By James M. Dorsey
A close read of the agreement between the United Arab Emirates and Israel suggests that the Jewish state has won far more than diplomatic recognition. It won acknowledgement of its claim to historic Jewish rights. By the same token, the UAE has received a significant boost to project itself as a leader in inter-faith dialogue.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and United Arab Emirates Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed walked away from this month’s White House signing ceremony with more than just an agreement to establish diplomatic relations.
Included in the agreement are references that are key to foundational Israeli arguments asserting the right of the Jewish people to a state on what was once predominantly Arab land rather than simple recognition of the fact that the Jewish state exists.
Recognition of Jewish rights has long been a demand put forward by Mr. Netanyahu.
In talks with the Palestinians as well as the building of relations with Arab states over the years, the Israeli leader asserted that mere diplomatic acceptance of Israel’s existence was not good enough. And yet, that was the basis of earlier peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan as well as Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Yasser Arafat’s 1988 recognition of Israel and the subsequent 1993 Oslo accords.
From the outset, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been as much a dispute about control of land as one of perceived rights.
Recognition of Jewish rights in Palestine bolsters Israeli assertions that its claims to territory occupied during the 1967 Middle East are legitimate rather than a land grab resulting from military conquest.
To be clear, it does not by definition endorse annexation, but it constitutes Arab acceptance of Israel’s position that any compromise between Israelis and Palestinians, a sine qua non for a resolution of their dispute, would involve mediation of claims that are historically and morally on par.
Arabs in the past have projected solutions as the need to address Palestinian rights while accepting Israel’s existence.
The agreement did not explicitly recognize Jewish rights, but enabled Israel to interpret the deal as doing so by stating that “Arab and Jewish peoples are descendants of a common ancestor, Abraham.”
The text of the agreement suggests that the reference was primarily related to allow the UAE to boost its efforts to project itself as a leader of inter-faith dialogue and a moderate interpretation of Islam – a pillar of the country’s well-funded soft power campaign that paints the Emirates as a militarily capable, forward-looking, religiously tolerant and technologically savvy, cutting edge state.
The interpretation of the phrasing as recognition of Jewish rights may have been an unintended consequence or icing on Israel’s cake.
It was a bonus that David Makovsky of The Washington Institute for Near East Policy -- widely viewed as leaning towards Israel -- was quick to point out. Mr. Makovsky noted that the reference implied that “both (Arabs and Jews are) indigenous to the Middle East.”
Mr. Makovsky suggested that the phrasing “is important because it clearly refutes longstanding allegations in the Arab world that Zionism is alien to the region.”
It puts past to Arab and Palestinian arguments that the long-touted two-state solution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was one of dividing up land claimed by two parties driven by facts on the ground rather than consideration of legal and moral claims.
This is not just of esoteric significance. It bolsters Israel’s long-standing rejection of Palestinian insistence on the right of refugees, including those who left during the 1948 war, to return to their homes and lands in what is now Israel.
Israel’s reading of the agreement as endorsement of its assertion that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is about equally valid rights is likely to be interpreted differently on both sides of Israel’s right-left divide.
The country’s weakened left will see it as highlighting the need for territorial compromise. Significant segments of the Israeli right will view it as validation of its belief dating back to the period prior to the 1948 creation of Israel that the clash of Jewish and Palestinian rights is irreconcilable. That is a view that has historically also resonated among elements of the labor movement.
That may be what makes the UAE-Israel deal truly historic.
The icing on the UAE’s cake, beyond the significant geopolitical, military, security, technological and economic benefits of the agreement, is the stress on inter-faith dialogue.
Under the agreement, the UAE and Israel “undertake to foster mutual understanding, respect, co-existence, and a culture of peace between their societies in the spirit of their common ancestor, Abraham, and the new era of peace and friendly relations ushered in by this Treaty, including by cultivating people-to-people programs, (and) interfaith dialogue…”
The UAE, like Saudi Arabia, one of its multiple autocratic religious soft power rivals, has gone in recent years to great lengths to cultivate ties to Jewish and Evangelist communities and to position itself as a sponsor of an inter-faith dialogue in which Islam is represented by Muslim scholars who preach absolute obedience to the ruler and reject endorsement of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its an interpretation of the faith intended to ensure regime survival and counter allegations of violations of human rights in the UAE.
The signing of a Document on Human Fraternity by the imam of the Al-Azhar Grand Mosque in Cairo, Ahmed El-Tayeb, and Pope Francis I during his 2019 visit to the UAE, the first by a head of the Vatican to the Gulf, served to offer an alternative to the Universal Declaration that allows the Emirates to pick and choose which rights it accepts.
The emphasis on inter-faith dialogue is bolstered and conditioned by the agreement’s implicit condemnation of political Islam, a key driver of UAE policy that is shared by Israel.
The agreement rejects “political manipulation of religions and…interpretations made by religious groups who, in the course of history, have taken advantage of the power of religious sentiment…in a way that has nothing to do with the truth of religion.”
Omar Ghobash, UAE Assistant Minister for Culture and Public Diplomacy, speaking in a US-UAE Council webinar, noted that one driver for the conclusion of the agreement was “what happened around the so-called Arab Spring and then the rise of vicious groups like ISIS, let alone Al Qaeda.”
Mr. Ghobash was referring to the 2011 popular Arab revolts that toppled the autocratic leaders of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen as well as the rise of the Islamic State in the aftermath of the uprisings, which was a product of the 2003 US invasion of Iraq rather than the rebellions.
He projected the agreement as part of the UAE’s institutionalization of its values.
“There is a distortion that has taken place over the last few decades…represented by groups like the Muslim Brotherhood, groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS … There is a recurring theme in conversations with my leaders and that is that Islam has been hijacked by these groups. The reality is that in taking Islam back, you need to free it from those constraints. You free it by presenting a different expression of Islam,” Mr. Ghobash said.
Critics suggest that the agreement’s formalization of Israeli support for the UAE’s propagation of a state-controlled Islam fails to tackle a core issue: the need to address religious concepts that are either outdated or outmoded or require reconceptualization and reinterpretation.
Those concepts legitimized decades of Muslim demonization of Israel as well as Jews, Christians, and other non-Muslims.
The UAE took a first major step to address the issue by distributing to schools barely two weeks after the announcement of the establishment of diplomatic relations textbooks that cite the agreement with Israel as an expression of fundamental Islamic and Emirati values.
However, the ultimate litmus test of the UAE’s effort to shape moderate Islam will be if and when it loosens the state’s grip on religion and allows for free-flowing, credible theological debate in which scholars tackle problematic religious concepts that have served their purpose but are out of place in a modern, forward-looking society.
A podcast version of this story is available on Soundcloud, Itunes, Spotify, Stitcher, TuneIn, Spreaker, Pocket Casts, Tumblr, Podbean, Audecibel, Patreon and Castbox.
Dr. James M. Dorsey is an award-winning journalist and a senior fellow at Nanyang Technological University’s S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore. He is also a senior research fellow at the National University of Singapore’s Middle East Institute and co-director of the University of Wuerzburg’s Institute of Fan Culture in Germany.
submitted by assousa to geopolitics [link] [comments]

2020.09.09 03:23 confessionusername Compare experiences. First time story.

I went to a strip club for the first time 2 nights ago. I can't really tell anyone about it so I thought I would make a post and see what some reactions are.
for context I am 29 years old and have lived a very sexually repressed life. I am a very religious person and felt guilty going in the first place. I see a lot of comments in here about how far people can get with a stripper and that is not what I wanted. I don't want a handjob/blowjob/sex. I also wanted to go big for the night so i didn't really care about dropping a sizable amount of money which is ok because this is not a habit of mine, and at not point did I feel like I was being taken advantage of.
I am kind of insecure about my looks, even though i think that most people would consider me pretty good looking. 6'4'' with a large body and big muscles. good facial features with a baby face and deep blue eyes. One thing that I noticed through out the night was that I got a lot of attention. I know that the girls are looking for money and they have to pretend to like everyone, but I did hear a couple girls say to me that they were disappointed when other girls would steal me away.
The first thing that happened after about 30 secs of getting into the club was that the stage dancer pulled me in and put my head in-between her breasts. which was kind of shocking to me.
1st girl: K I then took a seat and waited for the night to begin. The first girl came up and asked me if i wanted a lap dance about 5 min later. She was a beautiful girl with large breasts and a big ass. I was a bit nervous and the dance was kind of uneventful. She was 19 and and I wanted to be as respectful as I could. probably the best thing about this dance was noticing how smooth her ass was.
2nd Girl: C I returned to my seat and about 5 min later a smoking hot blonde can and sat next to me. She was 24 and really nice. we talked about how we both liked water based activities. She like to kayak and i have lived in Hawaii for the past 4 years (back on the mainland due to covid) I told her that I love freediving. We agreed to go to vip to do a half hour. She told me she was easy and just not to touch her pussy or butthole. We talked while we were grinding for a little bit, and i made her laugh a lot by cracking jokes. I earnestly told her that she was pretty, and she had a smile on her face the whole time.
3rd girl: L I went back out onto the floor and there was a petite blonde girl working the pole. after the dance she came up to me and we agreed to do a half hour vip. She had a southern accent and told me she was from Tennessee. I have always had a petite fetish, and was really looking forward to seeing what it was like. We went to the vip room and I cracked a few more jokes and made her laugh a lot. This session was pretty vanilla though. She had pierced nipples and I think i may have hurt a little bit by rubbing them too hard. At the end of the dance she said that I reminded her of the guy from the hangover because i was funny. I said Zach Galifinakis he's the worst one! Then she assured me it was just because I could make her laugh.
4th girl: N This is where things got a bit more intense. I stayed and watched the next dancer she was super tiny and had a great ass. I through her about five singles on stage and she took notice to that. She came off stage and grabbed me. I knew that i was going to spend a lot of money this night, but I though that i might be going through it too fast. so i decided to do a couch dance instead of vip. We went back to the couch and the first few seconds she took her panties off and put her vagina in my face. Too be honest I didn't like it that much it didn't smell good, you could tell she smoked, but what i did like a lot is feeling that she really liked me. at the end of the couch dance i grabbed her hand and pulled her into me and said lets go to vip. She took me to a more private room with a mirror. I think she liked that i was so big, she had me stand up and she stood on the couch behind me, and I was still taller than her. She grabbed me from behind and started feeling up my body, and then slapped my ass. I sat down and she took her panties off and started to grind onto me. I started feeling up her ass, and she told me that she liked my big hands that could cup all of her ass cheeks. I started rubbing her ass hard with one hand, and that she bit my ear which was super hot. She leaned back and then put her hand up against my throat. she said she wanted to get me as close to cumming as possible. She had an incredibly smooth body, and I rubbed every inch of it.
As things heated down for a minuet we started to talk about life. She was 34 and single. I told her that this was my first time in a strip club. She was super nice she said that i didn't really belong in a strip club and though that it was strange that I didn't have a girlfriend. She seemed really interested in my stories about Hawaii. I told her a couple of times that i almost died falling off a cliff, getting stuck in a cave underwater freediving, a motorcycle accident I was in, and the time that there was that missile scare and everyone in hawaii was told a nuclear missile was incoming. Then we talked about our love lives for a while.
5th girl: K Next the girl from my first couch dance came up to me and we went to vip this time. She really was a knockout, but I think that I really don't have a fetish for teens. I ended up caring about her to much to get really into the lapdance. She eluded to having some family problems. She told me that she would take her panties off but not grind on me at the same time, which was fine. She ended up with her hands on the ground and her ass and pussy in my lap while i massaged her ass. She was really prying into the reason that i moved to Hawaii, which was for religious reasons, and i didn't want to tell her that, but I don't lie so i eventually told her the truth. She than had a lot of questions about God and the church, so I basically gave her a history lecture of church denominations while I massaged her ass. I told her that she could put her panties back on, and then she ended up lying back against me as she asked me some more questions. She asked me about abortion, and I asked her if she had had one, which she said no. I told her the truth that In the bible life inside the womb is considered a person with a soul, and if I believe that their is only one way to think on the subject. She asked me what I thought about sex before marriage, and I retorted that its most peoples biggest sticking point with Christianity. She then asked me if she was going to go to hell for stripping, and I told her No, that The whole point of Jesus was to wash away all sin no matter what it is, and that God loves her. This had to be an unusual night for her, but there was something sweet about it.
Girl 6: A There was a girl with a very alt look her short hair with tattoos, and i could tell she was very good friends with Girl 2 C This was the only Girl that I walked up to and asked for a dance from all night. She had great cruves, a big ass, and a crazy attractive personality. She worked the pole right before we went to vip for another half hour. I told her that she was my type! She went nuts. We talked about how we both like classical literature and musical theater.
She enthusiastically got on her knees and started rubbing her boobs into my crotch, which was super hot. She was sweating a lot which was a huge turn on for me. I started rubbing my hands all over her body, her back, her boobs, and her legs. Her sweat made it super easy slippery. Then she turned around and grinded her ass into my dick for a little bit. then she laid back against me and i started to make out with her neck. She asked me who were my favorite girls of the night and I said her and C. She began to tell me that her and C were best friends. I told her about all of my friends and how important friendship is. I asked her if she had a boyfriend (not to hit on her but just to say if your single good friends are important) but than she just looked up and said "Im gay" and then we both started laughing as hard as we could. We talked about our dating lives for a little bit, grinded a bit more and then the dance was over.
Dance 7: A and C The club was closing soon and I was still horny. I figure A and C are good friends and I hit it off with both of them so why not double up. We agreed to do a double with both and then for me to finish off with C. To be honest the doubling was not as hot as I thought it would be. It was way less intimate, but I but motorboat A's buttcheecks and that was a turn on.
Last dance C I was just then left with C, too remind you see is a tall blond with a thick ass, and a BEAUTIFUL smile. She started going after it hard and i began to kiss her boobs, her stomach, and her neck. She was getting sweaty too now which like i said is a turn on. I told her to bite my ear which is something that I learned I liked when one of the other girls did. When she leaned in and bit it I let out an uncontrollable moan. She then played with my ears a little bit more which I didn't much care for, but bit it a few more times and each time i couldn't stop myself from moaning. The time seemed to go on for a lot longer than the other dances, and it was SOOO hot! She stayed late to finish the dance, and when It ended the club had cleared out.
After It ended she sat down for a bit and I caressed her ass for a few minuets longer. Then I stood up and said "So are you going to get chicken nuggets?" (something I had heard her and A talking about doing) she laughed, then we hugged, and she went back to the changing room.
I know I am in not in love with her or anything, but I feel like if we met in real life we would be friends.
I have a tendency to overconnect with people and I'm scarred of that happening with a stripper someone who might be totally indifferent to me.
So I said goodnight to all the girls on the way out. It was really nice to see them in their street cloths. Especially A who had such a great punky style.
I got pulled over by a cop on the way home for speeding, and he consoled me about feeling guilty for going to a strip club, and let me go with a warning.
Is all this pretty par for the course, or was my experience different in any way?
submitted by confessionusername to stripclubs [link] [comments]

2020.09.02 12:53 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 8/12: Corinthians

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 8/12: Corinthians (State: São Paulo), founded in 1910

State rivals: Palmeiras, São Paulo, Santos

Stadium: Arena Corinthians / Pacaembu (Old)

Mascot: Musketeer

Major achievements: 2 Club World Cup (2000, 2012), 1 Copa Libertadores (2012), 7 Brazilian Leagues (1990, 1998, 1999, 2005, 2011, 2015, 2017), 3 Copa do Brasil (1995, 2002, 2009)

State League titles: 30 (Against Palmeiras' 23, Santos' 22, São Paulo's 21)

The kings of São Paulo and the team of the people (1910-1954)
Corinthians was founded in 1910 by a group of factory workers in São Paulo, inspired by Corinthian FC, an English team that was going on an excursion in Brazil. From the first moment of Corinthians foundation, their president stated that they would be the "team of the people, and that the people would make the team". It was a manifest against the aristocratic trend of only allowing rich and white people into football clubs.
In Brazilian football early days, there wasn't a national league until 1959, so the teams would play inside their own state, in the State Leagues. In this São Paulo State League Era, Corinthians rose from nothing to become the most victorious team inside the state, with 15 titles, notably leaving behind their rivals Palmeiras (12), São Paulo (8), Santos (4), and also traditional teams from the amateur era such as Paulistano (11). If there was a national league in this period, Corinthians would certainly be a serious title contender, along with Fluminense (from Rio de Janeiro state league) and their archrival, Palmeiras.
Highlights to Corinthians early-1950s decade, when they won 2 State Leagues (1951, 1952), 3 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (1950, 1953, 1954) and 1 Pequeña Copa del Mundo in Venezuela (1953).
Tournament Champion Runner-up 3rd place
1950 Rio-São Paulo* Corinthians Vasco Portuguesa
1951 São Paulo State League Corinthians Palmeiras Portuguesa
1952 São Paulo State League Corinthians São Paulo Portuguesa
1953 Rio-São Paulo* Corinthians Vasco São Paulo
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians Roma (Italy) Barcelona (Spain)
1954 Rio-São Paulo Corinthians Fluminense Palmeiras
Corinthians notably won, undefeated, the 1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo against Roma (Italy), Barcelona (Spain) and Caracas (Venezuela). Barcelona, of the Hungarian star Kubala, were the current Spanish and Latin Cup champions; Roma, 6th placed in the Serie A; and Caracas, the home guests. Corinthians won their 6 matches, as you can see below. The topscorers were Luizinho (Corinthians) and Kubala (Barcelona) with 5 goals each.
Tournament Match Goals
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 1-0 Roma (Italy) Luizinho (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 3-2 Barcelona (Spain) Luizinho (2), Kubala (1), Moreno (1), Carbone (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 2-1 Caracas (Venezuela) Cláudio (1), Carbone (1), Aguirre (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 1-0 Barcelona (Spain) Goiano (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 2-0 Caracas (Venezuela) Cláudio (2)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 3-1 Roma (Italy) Luizinho (2), Cláudio (1), Galle (1)
Later in 1958, Corinthians provided the Brazilian National Team with two players in the World Cup title campaign, notably the legendary goalkeeper Gylmar, starter in 1958 and 1962. He played 395 matches for Corinthians, before moving to Santos in 1961.
1954-1977: the drought and the Rivellino Era
In this period, Corinthians went through their longest title drought of their history, without winning a single trophy. Technically, they won the 1966 Rio-São Paulo Tournament, but it had to be shared with 3 other teams due to a lack of dates to end it.
Between 1965 and 1974, Rivellino (born 1946), a creation of Corinthians youth system, was the team's main star. He played 474 matches for Corinthians, scoring 141 goals, and represented his club in the 1970 and 1974 World Cups. He never managed to win the then prestigious State League title, or even the National League, reaching the State League final just once, in 1974, losing to their archrival Palmeiras. He was "found guilty" of losing the final and was released from the club, sold to Fluminense. You can see some of Rivellino magical skills in this amazing skills-only video (3mn08s video).
In this difficult era, Corinthians also counted with legendary star Garrincha in 1966. However, his form was already declining at the age of 32, and he only appeared in 13 matches, scoring 2 goals.
Curiously enough, Pelé played professionaly from 1956 to 1977, almost the exact time Corinthians went trophyless. When Pelé began to shine in football, he used to say that he was rejected in a Corinthians trial in 1954, and therefore cursed that "while I (Pelé) play football, Corinthians will never be champions again". Pelé retired on the 1st of October 1977, and 12 days later, on the 13th October 1977, Corinthians 23-year title drought was over, as they won the 1977 São Paulo State League, 1-0 against Ponte Preta, with a goal from Basilio, at minute 81.
1976: The Corinthians Invasion
A year before Corinthians drought was over, one of the biggest events in the history of Brazilian football took place, the Invasão Corinthiana. The 5th of December 1976, a one-match-only Brazilian League semi-final would happen in Rio de Janeiro, between the home guests Fluminense (of Rivellino, who left Corinthians in 1974) and Corinthians, from São Paulo, 450km away from Rio.
The hype was intense. Fluminense were the frank favorites: 10 of their starting 11 had already been capped to the Brazil NT, they were called the Tricolor Machine.
The Maracanã 146.000 capacity would be split half-half. 70.000 tickets were given to Corinthians by Fluminense, and they were sold out in less than 3 hours. Tens of thousands of Corinthianos started moving from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro 2 days before the match: by airplane, bus, car, motorcycle, bike, taxi, it didn't matter, the Rio-São Paulo highway was dominated by Corinthians supporters (pic). On Saturday 4th, one day before the match, the city and the Copacabana beach of Rio de Janeiro became a huge Corinthianos party. Hundreds and hundreds of black and white flags and shirts all over the city.
On the day of the match, the atmosphere inside the Maracanã was INTENSE (5mn video). More than ever, Corinthians needed to end that title drought. Inexplicably, Corinthians fanbase had their biggest growth during the 60s/70s title drought. That's why they say that only the Corinthians supporters know what it's like to be a Corinthiano, that's why they nicknamed themselves "the Sufferers". Because they are the legitimate team of the people.
The match started under a moderate rain, and the pitch wasn't at its best. Fluminense opened the score at '29, with this goal from Pintinho. Corinthians needed at least a goal to go to extratime, and found it at '29 with Russo, after a corner kick. The rain intensified, and the pitch turned into this horrible mud. Not much happened afterwards, and the match went to the penalty kicks. Corinthians GK Tobias saved Fluminense's 1st and 2nd p.k., while Corinthians scored all their 3 penalties, and Fluminense only 1 out of 3. Zé Maria then scored Corinthians 4th penalty and qualified his team to the 1976 Brazilian League final.
However, Corinthians lost the final 0-2 to Falcão's Internacional, playing away. But the epic Invasão Corinthiana of Rio de Janeiro would be forever remembered in the Brazilian football history - this very good 46mn documentary comes back to 1976 and also shows the 2000 (Rio de Janeiro) and 2012 (Japan) Club World Cup posterior invasions.
1977: the State League title and the end of the drought
In 1977, Corinthians 23-year title drought finally came to an end, after they won the State League title. They played 48 matches, with 30W-6D-12L, cumulating 55% of the points. In the big final, they beat Ponte Preta 1-0, with Basílio scoring this eternal goal at '81.
It was Corinthians' 16th State League title, while their rivals had 18 (Palmeiras), 13 (Santos) and 11 (São Paulo) at that point. So, even without winning a State League title for 23 years, Corinthians was still fighting for São Paulo state title record.
1982-84: Socrates and the Corinthians Democracy
In the middle of the Brazilian military dictatorship, Corinthians chose to wave a flag in favor of democracy. It all began in April 1982, with the nomination of a sociologist, Adilson, to the football director job. Adilson liked to listen to the players, and along with politicized players such as Sócrates, Wladimir, Casagrande and Zenon, decided to establish an innovative democracy inside the club.
Basically, every decision (contracts, inside rules, etc) that was to be taken would be decided by voting. From the president to the average worker, all had the same right to vote, and the same vote weight. For example, thanks to this voting system, married players didn't need to sleep in hotels before matches with the rest of the team anymore. They would also use the Corinthians kit to spread political opinions in favor of democracy--such as the sayings "Diretas Já" ("Direct voting Now") and "Eu quero votar para presidente" ("I want to vote for president").
In April 1984, the Amendment Proposal For Direct Voting was rejected by the Chamber of Deputies, which collaborated to the departure of Sócrates to the Italian Serie A (Fiorentina), and to the end of the Corinthians Democracy. This talented generation won the São Paulo State Leagues of 1982 and 1983, and reached the 1982 and 1984 Brazilian League semi-finals.
This notable team provided the charming Brazil of 1982 (5mn46s video) with Sócrates, who played 265 matches for Corinthians, scoring 172 goals between 1978 and 1984.
1990: the first Brazilian League title
After winning the 1988 State League title, Corinthians won their first Brazilian League title in 1990. Led by midfielder Neto to the knock-out stages, Corinthians defeated Atlético Mineiro in the quarter-finals. In the 1st leg, they did a 2-1 comeback, with both goals from Neto: the first with a header and the second shooting from inside the box. In the 2nd leg, a 0-0 tie put Corinthians in the semi-final stage against Bahia.
In the 1st leg of the semis, Bahia opened the scored, but Corinthians tied with an own goal. Neto scored the 2nd goal with his trademark style, the free-kick. In the 2nd leg, a 0-0 tie was enough to put Corinthians in the final.
In the final, a derby between Corinthians and the São Paulo of Zetti, Cafu, Leonardo, Raí and the coach Telê Santana (former 1982 Brazil coach).
In the 1st leg, Wilson Mano scored the only goal of the match at '4. Fabinho (Corinthians) almost scored the 2nd after this brilliant run and conclusion, saved by Zetti, and Ronaldo (Corinthians GK), fantastic as always, kept Corinthians goal secured with great saves. In the final 2nd leg, Corinthians scored the only goal of the match at '54, after a great one-two between Fabinho and Tupãzinho, with the latter scoring the goal, and securing Corinthians first Brazilian League title.
Ronaldo (GK) and Marcelo Djian (CB) were both elected to the League's Best XI.
Corinthians kept the good shape and won 2 more State Leagues (1995, 1997) and 1 Copa do Brasil undefeated (1995), as well as 2nd place in the 1994 Brazilian League, with a new generation led by Viola and their eventual big idol, Marcelinho Carioca.
1998-2000: National legacy, champions of the World and the Copa Libertadores trauma
Tournament Champion Runner-up 3rd place 4th place
1998 Brazilian League Corinthians Cruzeiro Santos Portuguesa
1999 State League Corinthians Palmeiras Santos São Paulo
1999 Brazilian League Corinthians Atlético Mineiro Vitória São Paulo
2000 Club World Cup Corinthians Vasco Necaxa (Mexico) Real Madrid (Spain)
Vampeta, Rincón, Marcelinho and Ricardinho. The high-level of this midfield make the hearing of their names sound like poetry. The best Corinthians of all-time counted with other monsters such as GK Dida, Paraguayan CB Gamarra, LB Kléber, and the FW duo Luizão and Edílson. 5 of these guys were with the Brazil NT in the 2002 World Cup.
In this period, Corinthians won the 1998 and 1999 Brazilian Leagues, the 2000 Club World Cup and the 1999 São Paulo State League.
Luxemburgo (eventual Real Madrid coach) was the man behind the creation of this superteam. In the 1998 Brazilian League, Corinthians qualified to the knock-out stages with the best campaign. They first sent Grêmio home in the quarter-finals; and then Santos in the semi-finals, after three exciting matches (4mn51s video) and this fine and decisive goal by Edilson at '57 of the 3rd semi-final match.
In the big final against Cruzeiro, Corinthians started badly on the 1st match (away), losing 0-2 at half-time, but recovered greatly with two goals and left with a 2-2 tie. The 2nd leg, at home, was a 1-1 tie, with Corinthians opening the score and Cruzeiro equalizing later. In the 3rd final match, at home, Corinthians won by 2-0, with the first goal by Edilson at '70 and the second goal by Marcelinho Carioca at '80. For the 2nd time, Corinthians were crowned Brazilian champions. Gamarra and Vampeta were elected to the League's Best XI, while Edílson won the Golden Ball and Marcelinho Carioca was the team's topscorer with 19 goals in 28 matches. Their coach Luxemburgo left Corinthians to command the Brazil NT, appointing his auxiliary Oswaldo de Oliveira as the new coach.
Corinthians 1999 season was a hell of a rollercoaster. Qualified to the big dream, the Copa Libertadores, the team was the same as 1998, and had the arrival of Dida and Luizão.
In May 1999, Corinthians were knocked-off of the Copa Libertadores quarter-finals by their archrival Palmeiras, 2-4 on the penalties, after two evenly derbies (0-2, 2-0).
Weeks later, in June 1999, Corinthians and Palmeiras, again, disputed the final of the State League. Corinthians won the 1st derby 3-0. At minute 75 of the 2nd leg, with 2-2 in the score and Corinthians' title secured, Corinthians' winger Edílson performed the biggest provocation in the history of Brazilian football, by doing kick-ups with the ball, provoking this huge, epic and funny struggle. The match ended, and Corinthians were crowned State champions.
At the end of the season, Corinthians dominated the 1999 Brazilian League. In the K.O stage, they beat Guarani in the quarter-finals, and then their city rival São Paulo in the semis (3-2, 2-1), after Dida epically saved two penalties from São Paulo idol Raí (former PSG): the first on his left side at '52, and the second on his right side at '92. Corinthians then won the 2nd leg 2-1 and qualified to the finals.
They would face Atlético Mineiro, and lost the 1st leg (away) 2-3. At home in the 2nd leg, Corinthians beat them 2-0 with 2 goals from Luizão, the first at '28 from a header, and the second at '59 from inside the box. The 3rd leg was an electrifying 0-0 tie, and Corinthians were declared back-to-back Brazilian League champions.
Dida, Rincón and Vampeta were elected to the League's Best XI, Marcelinho Carioca won the Golden Ball, and Luizão was the team's topscorer with 21 goals in 25 matches.
The 2000 FIFA Club World Cup title
In 2000, took place in Brazil the first edition of the Club World Cup, and Corinthians qualified as Brazilian champions.
Group A Points Goal difference
Corinthians 7 +4
Real Madrid (Spain) 7 +3
Al-Nassr (Saudi Arabia) 3 -3
Raja Casablanca (Morocco) 0 -4
Group B Points Goal difference
Vasco 9 +5
Necaxa (Mexico) 4 +1
Manchester United (England) 4 0
South Melbourne (Australia) 0 -6
Before Real Madrid's match against Corinthians, the French centre-back Karembeu said he didn't know who Edilson (Corinthians number 10) was. In the match, Edilson humiliated him with this dismantling and shameful nutmeg, before scoring this painting of a goal. The match ended 2-2, with Edílson also scoring the other Corinthians goal.
This beautiful image is perfect to describe Karembeu's humiliating moment.
Corinthians would proceed to play against Vasco in the big final. 70.000 Corinthianos invaded Rio de Janeiro just like in 1976, expecting a great match against Vasco's dream team that had Romário, Edmundo and Juninho Pernambucano. After a 0-0 tie, it went to the penalties. Dida saved Gilberto's shot, and Marcelino Carioca only needed to score to end it, but he missed it. However, Edmundo lost Vasco's last penalty, and Corinthians were crowned Club World champions.
However, later that year, Corinthians met their archrivals Palmeiras once again in the Copa Libertadores, now in the semi-finals. After two crazy evenly derbies (4-3, 2-3), it went to the penalties, just like in 1999. And Marcelinho lost his one, getting Corinthians out of the tournament, and beginning a huge frustration and trauma of the Corinthianos for not having a continental title, while all their state rivals (Palmeiras, São Paulo and Santos) had.
2001-2010: Carlitos Tévez, the 2007 relegation, Ronaldo Nazário's last dance, and the Copa Libertadores trauma
The 2000s was a crazy decade for Corinthians.
They won 3 State League titles (2001, 2003, 2009), 1 Brazilian League (2005), 2 Copa do Brasil (2002, 2009) and 1 Rio-São Paulo (2002). But they were also relegated to the Brazilian League Serie B in 2007.
Highlights to their Galáticos 2005 team, led by Argentine stars Tévez and Mascherano, as well as Carlos Alberto (former Porto) and Nilmar (eventual Villareal), who together won the 2005 Brazilian League.
After their relegation to Serie B in 2007, the club rebuilt greatly under the president Andrés Sanchez.
He brought the legend Ronaldo Nazário in 2009, who led Corinthians to the 2009 State League title against Neymar's Santos and to the 2009 Copa do Brasil title against Internacional. Ronaldo scored 35 goals in 69 matches, with great highlights, notably this last-minute goal on his 1st match in a derby against Palmeiras and also this goal against Santos in the 2009 State League final. He was joined by left-back Roberto Carlos in 2010, before retiring in 2011.
But the Copa Libertadores trauma was still alive. The 30 million Corinthianos couldn't live with the jokes and suffering for not having a continental title.
Year Stage Knocked-out by
1977 Copa Libertadores Group Stage Internacional
1991 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 Boca Juniors (Argentina)
1996 Copa Libertadores Quarter-finals Grêmio
1999 Copa Libertadores Quarter-finals Palmeiras
2000 Copa Libertadores Semi-finals Palmeiras
2003 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 River Plate (Argentina)
2006 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 River Plate (Argentina)
2010 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 Flamengo
2011 Copa Libertadores Preliminary Round Tolima (Colombia)
But after the 2011 elimination, a new era began.
Corinthians 2011-2012: National, Continental and World champions, the dream came true
The coach Tite almost lost his job after the ridiculous defeat to Tolima. But he stayed and focused on the 2011 Brazilian League.
Corinthians dominated the league, leading it for 27 rounds (out of 38). On the last round, they tied 0-0 against Palmeiras and secured their 5th Brazilian League title. However, sadly on this same day, the old idol Sócrates passed away, at the age of 57.
Corinthians had thus qualified to the 2012 Copa Libertadores, which they would brilliantly win undefeated (8W-6D), as well as their 2nd FIFA Club World Cup title.
Tournament Stage Match Goals
2012 Libertadores GS 1-1 Táchira (VEN) Ralf
2012 Libertadores GS 2-0 Nacional (PAR) Danilo, Jorge Henrique
2012 Libertadores GS 0-0 Cruz Azul (MEX) -
2012 Libertadores GS 1-0 Cruz Azul (MEX) Danilo
2012 Libertadores GS 3-1 Nacional (PAR) Jorge Henrique, Sheik, Elton
2012 Libertadores GS 6-0 Táchira (VEN) Danilo, Paulinho, Jorge Henrique, Sheik, Liédson, Douglas
2012 Libertadores Ro16 0-0 Emelec (ECU) -
2012 Libertadores Ro16 3-0 Emelec (ECU) Fábio Santos, Paulinho, Alex
2012 Libertadores QF 0-0 Vasco -
2012 Libertadores QF 1-0 Vasco Paulinho
2012 Libertadores SF 1-0 Santos Sheik
2012 Libertadores SF 1-1 Santos Danilo
2012 Libertadores Final 1-1 Boca Juniors (ARG) Romarinho
2012 Libertadores Final 2-0 Boca Juniors (ARG) Sheik (2x)
2012 Club World Cup SF 1-0 Al-Ahly (EGY) Guerrero
2012 Club World Cup Final 1-0 Chelsea (ENG) Guerrero
Corinthians topped their group stage, placing 2nd overall in the cup. In the round of 16 they met Emelec (Ecuador), and held a 0-0 tie away in the 1st leg, before beating them 3-0 at home in the 2nd leg without much problems, except this dangerous chance and this ball in the post in Ecuador.
In the quarter-finals, the adversary was the Brazilian team, Vasco. The 1st leg was in Rio de Janeiro, a 0-0 tie, with this only big chance in Corinthians' favor. In the 2nd leg, Corinthians were pressing Vasco a lot, until the minute 62, when Vasco forward Diego Souza threw this incredible opportunity away. Had he scored, Corinthians would need 2 goals in 30 minutes. Corinthians kept pressing, until Paulinho scored the winning goal at '87.
In the semi-finals, the current Copa Libertadores champions, Santos, with Neymar, Ganso, Elano & co., would be a tough opponent. But, playing away, Corinthians' Sheik opened the score at '27 with this nice goal. Cássio made this good defense at '57, and this other one at '80. In the 2nd leg, Neymar opened the score for Santos at '35, but Danilo scored for Corinthians at '47, as the match ended 1-1, with Corinthians qualified to their 1st Copa Libertadores final.
In the big final against Riquelme's Boca Juniors (Argentina), who were chasing their 7th title, Corinthians would play the first match in Argentina. Boca opened the score at '72, but Romarinho equalized at '84, after Paulinho took the ball from Riquelme. Boca still had time to hit the post at '90. In the 2nd leg in São Paulo, Sheik opened the score at '53 and scored the 2nd at '71, after a juvenile mistake by Boca. At '92 the match was over, and Corinthians were crowned Copa Libertadores champions for the first time, and undefeated.
2012 Club World Cup - Corinthians 1-0 Chelsea
After beating Al-Ahly (Egypt) 1-0 in the semis, with this goal from Paolo Guerrero, Corinthians was ready to face Chelsea, the European champions, in the final. 30.000 Corinthianos invaded Japan for this unique moment.
Cássio (GK) saved Corinthians at least 4 times, notably with this one. But at '68, after a confusion inside the box, Paolo Guerrero scored the only goal of the match. At '84, Fernando Torres lost this 1on1 opportunity, brilliantly saved by Cássio. At '94, the match ended, and Corinthians were crowned Club World champions for the 2nd time in their history.
Corinthians - 1 Chelsea - 0
12. Cássio 1. Cech
2. Alessandro 2. Ivanovic (Azpilicueta)
3. Chicão 4. David Luiz
13. Paulo André 24. Cahill
6. Fábio Santos 3. A. Cole
5. Ralf 8. Lampard
8. Paulinho 7. Ramires
11. Sheik (Wallace) 13. Moses (Oscar)
23. J. Henrique 17. Hazard (Marin)
20. Danilo 10. Juan Mata
9. Paolo Guerrero (Martinez) 9. Torres
Tite Rafa Benítez
After these brilliant days, Corinthians remained on the top tier of Brazilian and South American football. They completed an International Treble in 2013 after winning the 2013 Recopa Sudamericana, won two more notable Brasileirão titles (2015, 2017), and also four more state leagues (2013, 2017, 2018, 2019). Their new arena was also concluded, in 2014.
Aqui é Corinthians!!! (This is Corinthians!!!)
To this day, Corinthians has a fanbase of 30 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 33.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.08.28 15:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899
In this brief period, circumcision rapidly transformed from an experimental procedure of antiquity into a nearly unquestioned cure-all for every ailment imaginable. Doctors also began to scrutinize the possible applications towards women as well.
In reference to the promotion of genital cutting by men like Remondino, Hutchinson, Johnson, Freeman, Lehman, and others, Jonathan Cohen (2011) wrote: "one of the most fascinating stories of the institutionalization of medical male circumcision is the discursive use of the Jews as racial proof of the benefits of circumcision, with a complete ignorance of sociological factors."

1885: ~10% of the American male population is circumcised

1887 Lewis Sayre, after promoting preventative circumcision for almost 20 years, finally limited his circumcision advocacy to therapeutic circumcision only rather than "indiscriminate" circumcision. His idea of therapeutic circumcision did still mean overdiagnosing infantile phimosis, but this was still an enormous improvement from his previous influential recommendations of totally non-therapeutic, preventative circumcision. [On the deleterious results of a narrow prepuce and preputial adhesions Trans. Ninth Internat. Med. Congress]
1887 M. A. Rust addressed circumcision in writing about the history of cultural mutilations:
"There is not a single tribe of savages on the face of the globe who do not disfigure parts of their bodies, and hardly a part of the body susceptible of disfigurement which has not been disfigured. This is not done in accordance with individual fancy, but in strict conformity to inexorable tribal rule.
Ornamentation lies at the root of many, but not of all of these mutilations. A great number of them entail such an amount of suffering and torture that, in order to establish them, to enforce submission and co-operation, potencies awful and mysterious must have been at work, striking fear into every individual heart. Once established, the obligation became as automatic as the daily walks of an ant.
Circumcision is the most ancient and widely spread mutilation in existence, and it is practiced in all the five parts of the world, though to the greatest extent in Asia, Africa, and among the savages of Australia. Of civilized nations we note about one hundred and thirty millions of Muhamedans, and about ten millions of Jews, and the Christians of Abyssinia. It was practiced in Mexico at the time of the conquest of Cortez, and, according to the accounts of modern travelers is still in use among Indian tribes in Nicaragua and on the Amazon.
No wonder that the origin of a mutilation so barbarous, so repulsive, and, at the same time, so widely spread and so tenaciously adhered to should have so repeatedly formed an object of inquiry and speculation. Muhamed found circumcision already an ancient usage among many of the Arabian tribes; he took it up for reasons akin to those for which Paul dropped it. It had prevailed, since time immemorial, among the Abyssinians, when they embraced Christianity. Travelers who make inquiries among savage tribes generally obtain for answer that it is a tribal custom which has always been; they cannot conceive why other reasons should be demanded."
[Mutilations. Gaillard's Medical Journal v. 45.]
1887 Angel Money writes:
"There can be no doubt of [masturbation's] injurous effect, and of the proneness to practice it on the part of children with defective brains. Circumcision should always be practiced. It may be necessary to make the genitals so sore by blistering fluids that pain results from attempts to rub the parts."
[Treatment of Disease In Children, Philidelphia: P. Blakiston, 1887. p.421.]
1888 John Harvey Kellogg (yes, the cereal guy) promoted irrational fear of masturbation and "spermatorrhoea." For girls, he warned that masturbation caused breast atrophy, uterine cancer, and insanity. He recommended circumcision and other surgical punishments for both boys and girls to punish and discourage masturbation. He also wrote positively of cauterizing the clitoris with acid to alleviate masturbation in girls. It's notable and often forgotten that he was promoting cutting the genitals of older children rather than infants. He wrote positively of the Jewish practice but also noted its tendency to scar the meatus (meatal stenosis). He advanced the propaganda that ancient genital surgery had always been performed for health. He also advocated the use of male chastity belts. The next entry after circumcision is castration as if to imply it was also the next genital surgical option should circumcision fail to produce the intended result. Like Kellogg, Hutchinson had also suggested castration as the next and more extreme option to cure masturbation.
"In younger children, with whom moral considerations will have no particular weight, other devices may be used. Bandaging the parts has been practiced with success. Tying the hands is also successful in some cases; but this will not always succeed, for they will often contrive to continue the habit in other ways, as by working the limbs, or lying upon the abdomen. Covering the organs with a cage has been practiced with entire success. A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anæsthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment, as it may well be in some cases. The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed."
"In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement, and preventing the recurrence of the practice in those whose will-power has become so weakened that the patient is unable to exercise entire self-control."
[Results of Secret Vice and Treatment for Self-abuse and Its Effects in Plain Facts for Old and Young, Burlington, Iowa, F. Segner & Co. — a longer excerpt from this work]

Chastity belts for boys and girls
1889 Peter Remondino, a San Diego physician and promoter of snake oil read his "A Plea for Circumcision; or, the Dangers that Arise from the Prepuce" at the meeting of the Southern California Medical Society.
"The subject of the paper was itself suggested by a long and personal observation of the changes made in man by circumcision. From the individual observation of cases, it was but natural to wish to enlarge the scope of our observation and comparison; this naturally led to a study of the physical characteristics of the only race that could practically be used for the purpose. This race is the Jewish race. On carefully studying into the subject, I plainly saw that much of their longevity could consistently be ascribed to their more practical humanitarianism, in caring for their poor, their sick, as well as in their generous provision for their unfortunate aged people. The social fabric of the Jewish family is also more calculated to promote long life, as, strangely as it may seem, family veneration and family love and attachment are far more strong and practical among this people than among Christians, this sentiment not being even as strong in the Christian races as it is in the Chinese or Japanese. … Actual observations show them [the Jews] to be exempt from many diseases which affect other races; so that it is not only that they recover more promptly, but that they are not, as a class, subjected to the loss of time by illness, or to the consequent sufferings due to illness or disease, in anything like or like ratio with other people. There is also a less tendency to criminality, debauchery, and intemperance in the race; this, again, can in a measure be ascribed to their family influence, which even in our day has not lost that patriarchal influence which tinges the home or family life in the Old Testament. Crimes against the person or property committed by Jews are rare. They likewise do not figure in either police courts or penitentiary records; they are not inmates of our poor-houses, but, what is also singular, they are never accused of many silly crimes, such as indecent exposures, assaults on young girls…."

1890: ~15% of the American male population is circumcised

1890 Herbert Snow, a London surgeon published a 57-page book, one of the first intactivist volumes of the modern era. He called for "the abolition of an antiquated practice involving the infliction of very considerable suffering upon helpless infants; and sanctioned, on very questionable grounds, by men of eminent authority.
"No sane man who possessed the advantages of a sound and entire prepuce would willingly sacrifice it without just and sufficient cause being shown."
[The Barbarity of Circumcision as a Remedy for Congenital Abnormality. London: J. & A. Churchill.]

The Orificial Surgical Society

1890 The Orificial Surgical Society "was founded by Edwin Hartley Pratt, a surgeon at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The organization was largely concerned with orifices below the waist, and provided training for surgery of the prepuce, clitoris, and rectum, the latter organ being given special emphasis. It was obsessed with the idea that most diseases were caused by tightness of the preputial or anal sphincters. … By the 1920s many of the member physicians had their licenses revoked." —Wallerstein Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy 1980:38 — See also: Rutkow IM. Edwin Hartley Pratt and orificial surgery: unorthodox surgical practice in nineteenth century United States. Surgery. 1993. and Moments in surgical history: orificial surgery. Arch Surg. 2001.
1890 William D. Gentry declared that phimosis in men and uterine disorders in women caused insanity, blindness, deafness, dumbness, epilepsy, paralysis and criminal behavior adding that "the genitals of either male or female are the centres of the nervous system". [Nervous derangements produced by sexual irregularities in boys. Trans American Institute of Homeopathy. v.43.]
1890 Jonathan Hutchinson wrote that the foreskin encouraged masturbation and "adds to the difficulties of sexual continence" and can even cause insanity. For evidence of the latter point, he pointed to the case of an anonymous surgeon committed to an insane asylum for compulsive masturbation. Adult circumcision was useful, he wrote, for breaking men of the habit of masturbation, but early childhood circumcision was ideal in his opinion. In closing, he wrote: "Measures more radical than circumcision would, if public opinion permitted their adoption, be a true kindness to many patients of both sexes" referring to the difficulty of getting the general public to accept the idea of doctor's electing to sterilize patients without their consent. [On circumcision as preventive of masturbation. Arch Surgery.]
1890 A review of Pogorelsky's Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews stated:
"As regards the predisposition to the acquirement of neuroses, the foreskin plays the same part in the male as the ovaries in the female." Sayre traced reflex paralysis and contracture of the lower extremeties; Erichsen, spasmodic diseases, to congenital phimosis.
Further, hypochondriacal persons with inclination to commit suicide, individuals who suffer from uro-paraplegia, nervous tremor, chorea minor, neuralgia, hysteria, hallucinations and paresis have been cured by circumcision.
Although circumcised persons contract gonorrhea more easily than uncircumcised, yet syphilis less often; the sexual desire is less in the former, hence crimes against morality are rarer."
Review of Pogorelsky M. Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews in The Medical Times. v.17. 1890.]
1891 Peter C. Remondino published a book of circumcision activism in which he vilified the foreskin at length as a malign influence and "moral outlaw." Repeating the false circumcision-prevents-masturbation meme, Remondino wrote, "the practice of [masturbation] can be asserted as being very rare among the children of circumcised races." According to Remondino excising foreskin would not only discourage boys from masturbating, but immunize them against tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, polio, idiocy, forgetfulness, impotence, unwanted erections, wet dreams and just about any medical problem you cared to mention.
"The prepuce seems to exercise a malign influence in the most distant and apparently unconnected manner: where, like some of the evil genii or sprites in the Arabian tales, it can reach from afar the object of its malignity, striking him down unawares in the most unaccountable manner; making him a victim to all manner of ills, sufferings, and tribulations; unfitting him for marriage or the cares of business; making him miserable and an object of continual scolding and punishment in childhood, through its worriments and nocturnal enuresis; later on, beginning to affect him with all kinds of physical distortions and ailments, nocturnal pollutions, and other conditions calculated to weaken him physically, mentally, and morally; to land him, perchance, in jail or even in a lunatic asylum. Man's whole life is subject to the capricious dispensations and whims of this Job's-comforts-dispensing enemy of man."
[Remondino PC. History of Circumcision… moral and physical reasons for its performance… and of the different operations practiced upon the prepuce Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. 1891.]
1891 Jefferson C. Crossland writes that:
"In consequence of circumcision the epithelial covering of the glans becomes dry, hard, less liable to excoriation and inflammation, and less pervious to venereal viruses. The sensibility of the glans is diminished, but not sufficiently to interfere with the copulative function of the organ or to constitute an objection...It is well authenticated that the a fruitful cause of the habit of masturbation in children... I conclude that the foreskin is detrimental to health, and that circumcision is a wise measure of hygiene."
[The Hygiene of Circumcision. NYMJ. 1891;53:484-485.]
1892 Circumcision was not the only proposed cure for masturbation. Some physicians such as David Yellowlee detailed another version of punitive and supposedly therapeutic preputial infibulation:
"Some direct operative interference, which shall prevent masturbation and show him that he can live without it, may be of much service. The best form of such interference is so to fix the foreskin that erection becomes painful and erotic impulses very unwelcome. To accomplish this, the prepuce is drawn well forward, the left forefinger inserted within it down to the root of the glans, and a nickel‐plated safety‐pin, introduced from the outside through skin and mucous membrane, is passed horizontally for half an inch or so past the tip of the left finger, and then brought out through mucous membrane and skin so as to fasten outside. Another pin is similarly fixed on the opposite side of the prepuce. With the foreskin thus looped up any attempt at erection causes a painful dragging on the pins, and masturbation is effectually prevented. In about a week some ulceration of the mucous membrane will allow greater movement and with less pain, when the pins can, if needful, be introduced into a fresh place."
It should be pointed out that Yellowlee's advocacy of infibulation was not limited to the treatment of inmates in lunatic asylums, and was, in fact, directed at parents, whose duty, he declared, was to prevent their children from adopting ‘the secret vice’.
[In Tuke DH ed. A Dictionary of Psychological Medicine. Vol. 2. London: J&A Churchill, 1892: 784 – 6]
1893 Mark J. Lehman claimed Jewish boys were healthier. He noted it was "an open question" whether tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, and "scrofula" were not "one and the same disease," and whether "such a simple measure as general circumcision" would not be the answer to all "insidious and filthy diseases." He called for immediate universal circumcision of all male infants. [A plea for circumcision. Medical Review.]
1893 An unnamed author for The Journal de Medicine de Paris provided a look into popular thought of the day on female circumcision (meaning only non-excisive incision here) writing:
"A certain Dr. Morris, of Boston, the land of Yankee notions, has discovered an ingenious method of making the most waspish and shrewish women models of gentleness and modesty. He proves by statistics that eighty out of one hundred American women of Aryan origin in New England have the gland of the clitoris adherent, in part or totality, to the prepuce. The result of these adherences is an imperfect development of the gland, and to this is due a weakness of sexual desire and various nervous perturbations. These troubles are dependent, in the first place, on an irritation of the terminal branches of the erectile nerves of the gland brought on by the adherences, and in the second place to irritation caused by the retention of smegma. This double irritation leads to masturbation, to the perversion of sexual desire, and finally to reflex neuroses.The preputial adherences of the clitoris are, according to Dr. Morris, the only and direct cause of the reflex neuroses from which thousands of New England women suffer, and he adds: "We can now understand how the most irritable young girl, the one who is most disagreeable and hysterical, may be made gentle, charming, and become endowed with a thousand feminine graces, by the simple rupture of the bands that bind down the clitoris [clitoral incision]." The therapeutic deduction is perfect, and we do not doubt that all husbands in New England who have shrewish wives will now employ Dr. Morris to break up these adhesions of the clitoris, and bring peace to many a suffering Boston household."
[Adherent Clitoris in all Shrewish Women. Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic. Translated from J Med Paris.]
1894 Peter C. Remondino claimed circumcision would curb the "predisposition" of black men to rape white women. Remondino's proposal was supported by several medical journals including the Maryland Medical Journal and the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (now the New England Journal of Medicine).
"From our observations and experience in such cases, we feel fully warranted in suggesting the wholesale circumcision of the Negro race as an efficient remedy in preventing the predisposition to discriminate raping so inherent in that race. We have seen this act as a valuable preventive measure in cases where an inordinate and unreasoning as well as morbid carnal desire threatened physical shipwreck; if in such cases the morbid appetite has been removed or at least brought within manageable and natural bounds, we cannot see why it should not—at least in a certain beneficial degree—also affect the moral stamina of a race proverbial for the leathery consistency, inordinate redundancy, generous sebaceousness and general mental suggestiveness and hypnotizing influence of an unnecessary and rape, murder and lynching breeding prepuce."
[Negro rapes and their social problems. National Popular Review vol. 4 p. 3.]
1894 Darby (2005) wrote: “eleven boys confined in a Kansas mental institute were castrated for persistent masturbation.” When the press was critical of this, "the Kansas Medical Journal defended the institute's action” writing “this abuse weakened the already imbecile mind and destroyed the body” (Darby, 2005).
1895 Charles E. Fisher, a homeopathic doctor, wrote:
"In all cases in which male children are suffering nerve tension, confirmed derangement of the digestive organs, restlessness, irritability, and other disturbances of the nervous system, even to chorea, convulsions, and paralysis, or where through nerve waste the nutritive facilities of the general system are below par and structural diseases are occurring circumcision should be considered as among the lines of treatment to be pursued."
A like rule obtains with reference to female children. In general practice the sexual organs in both sexes should be carefully examined by the general practitioner in early infancy, and at various times throughout child-life, with reference to the correction of deformity or unnatural conditions that may be present. ...the clitoris is often firmly bound down by an adherent hood; numerous reflexes arising therefrom. It has become quite the rule the examine the sexual organs of male children at or soon after birth, but, on the other hand, it is equally the rule to neglect to examine girl babies. As children of the weaker sex grow their more delicate nervous systems begin to show the effect of genital irritations, and many a case of chorea, confirmed headache, nervous jactitations, paralytic weakness, unusual irritability, melancholia or other abnormal state of the nervous system long remains uncured because of the failure to make careful examination of the condition of the genitalia and relieve irritations and adhesions at this site."
[A Hand-Book On The Diseases of Children And Their Homeopathic Treatment. Chicago: Medical Century Co. 1895]
1895 Edgar J. Spratling began his article explaining that part of the great evil of masturbation was that it might lead to being sodomized in an insane asylum. He advocated tight circumcisions to prevent the skin from being able to move, a natural feature of the human penis which facilitates masturbation. If not tight circumcision, cutting the nerves to the penis could also be used to blunt the individual's sexuality, and he advocated that surgery as well, but it was a more delicate surgery compared to circumcision.
"In women the road to its cure is an endless and monotonous journey, for nothing short of ovariotomy will be found to deserve even the term palliative; clitoridectomy, anatomically and physiologically, could be but a failure, blistering [i.e., cauterization is] only [a] cruelty. Among men the case is not so hopeless, for there anatomy is partly in the operator's favor [meaning male erogenous sensitivity is easier to destroy]. Of the treatments we might speak of blistering the glans penis, but only to condemn it as an uncalled for cruelty; the possible beneficial effect is so transient, while the untoward effect is often so lasting upon the patient mentally in the way of a feeling of resentment, that it is doubtful if one could ever justify such a proceeding. Complete section of the dorsal nerves of the penis (as I have previously advocated) is a rational procedure, but rather too radical for constant routine practice. The cases require the greatest care in the selection for this operation, and even then with all due care one will generally have to encounter the most strenuous objections and later the bitterest reproach and condemnation from the patients and from their relatives—though the object sought may have been obtained [at the expense of causing penile numbness and impotence]. [In cases of masturbation] circumcision is undoubtedly the physicians' closest friend and ally.
"To obtain the best results one must cut away enough skin and mucous membrane to rather put it on the stretch when erections come later. There must be no play in the skin after the wound has thoroughly healed, but it must fit tightly over the penis, for should there be any play the patient will be found to readily resume his practice not begrudging the time and extra energy required to produce the orgasm. It is true, however, that the longer it takes to have an orgasm, the less frequently it will be attempted, consequently the greater the benefit gained.
"The younger the patient operated upon the more pronounced the benefit, though occasionally we find patients who were circumcised before puberty that require a resection of the skin, as it has grown loose and pliant after that epoch."
[Masturbation in the Adult. Med Rec.]
1895 T. Ritchie Stone strongly advocated circumcision for all male infants in his pro-surgery review. [Circumcision. Maryland Med J.]
1896 An editorial in a scientific journal lists reasons for circumcision as everything from bed wetting to elephantitis.
"Local indications for circumcision: Hygienic, phimosis, paraphimosis, redundancy (where the prepuce more than covers the glans), adhesions, papillomata, ecaema (acute and chronic), oedema, chancre, chancroid, cicatrices, inflammatory thickening, elephantitis, naevus, epithelioma, gangrene, tuberculosis, prepupital calculi, hip-joint disease, hernia. Systematic indication: Onanism [masturbation], seminal emissions, enuresis [bed wetting], dysuria, retention, general nervousness, impotence, convulsions, hystero-epilepsy."
[Medical Record, Circumscisus, Medical Record, vol. 49 (1896): p.430.]
1897 S. G. A. Brown of Pennsylvania repeated the same Semitophillic sentiment as Remondino:
"The Jews, who perform this operation on the eighth day after birth, are, from actual observations, known to be exempt from many diseases which afflict other races. Their children are hardy, and grow up to manhood and womanhood strangers to disease, perfect in body, sound in mind, and with a morality above condemnation. It is rare that they figure in silly crimes, police or divorce courts. That an appendage like the prepuce which under various conditions, as phimosis, short frenum or preputial adhesions, is the leading factor in the production of enuresis, dysuria, impotence, calculi, cancer, syphilis, phthisis or various other reflex neuroses, can be considered as a natural physiological appendage, is absurd in the extreme. In order to render the rising generation healthy, mentally morally and physically, we must pay attention to this redundant tissue, and advise its early removal. Fully three-fourths of all male babies have abnormal prepuces."
[A Plea for Circumcision. J Orificial Surgery quoted in The Medical World]
1898 T. Scott McFarland of Missouri reported on the circumcision of a two-year-old girl with precocious puberty and anomalous symptoms of irritation. In closing he added that he had "circumcised as many girls as boys, and always with happy results." Note that circumcision meant prepucectomy for either sex until the 1980s. The more severe form of genital cutting more familiar to people today as female circumcision/FGM meaning clitoridectomy was then called "[clitoral] excision" or the oddly overgeneralized, "operative procedure". [Circumcision of girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
1898 Edwin H. Pratt wrote:
"The condition of the foreskin of boys has received more or less attention, at least since the days of Moses, who is reported to have inaugurated the practice of circumcision of the male portion of the human race. But the girls have been neglected. Without presuming to pose as their Moses, I do feel an irresistible impulse to cry out against the shameful neglect of the clitoris and its hood, because of the vast amount of sickness and suffering, which could be saved the gentler sex, if this important subject received proper attention and appreciation at the hands of the medical profession.
All up-to-date doctors realize the importance of the proper condition of the foreskin in the male and of securing it during infancy. The foreskin must be completely loosened, if it is too long amputated and if it is too tight slit open, in order to avoid the dangers of infantile convulsions, of hip-joint disease, of kidney disease, of paralysis, of eczema universalis, of stammering, of dyspepsia, of pulmonary tuberculosis, of constipation, of locomotor ataxia, of rheumatism, of idiocy and insanity, and of lust and all its consequences. But the poor girls, who have an organ called the clitoris, anatomically corresponding to the penis of the male, with a hood corresponding to the foreskin of the male and just as sorely in need of [surgical] attention, and just as prolific of mischief when neglected as the corresponding parts of the male, have been permitted to suffer on in silence. The same list of diseases which have their start in nerve waste caused by a faulty foreskin in the male is duplicated by the female sex from identically the same cause, in addition to other troubles peculiar to the female organization from which, of course, the male are exempt, and yet it goes on almost entirely unrecognized. Chorea, so frequent in young girls, chlorosis, which comes a little later on, and hysteria, which is also a common affliction, in addition to the same diseases from which boys whose foreskin have been neglected are liable to suffer, have their organ almost invariably in faulty conditions of the hood of the clitoris. It is such a simple matter to secure a normal condition of the hood and its clitoris, and its neglect is fraught with so much and such serious mischief to the gentler sex, that the sin of omission which is being constantly and everywhere committed is painful to contemplate. Doctors are not easily educated out of their beaten tracks.
So let both sexes have a start in life and be entirely freed from the sexual self consciousness which inevitably comes from impinged nerve fibres about the clitoris and its hood as well as at the glans penis and its foreskin. ... A vigorous sympathetic nervous system means health and long life. What surgical interest have we in this fact? It can be told in just one sentence. The weakness and the power of the sympathetic nerve lies at the orifices of the body. Surgery must keep these orifices properly smoothed and dilated."
[Circumcision of Girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
Women suffering from \"hysteria\"
1898 N. Bergman wrote of "punishing" a chronic masturbator with circumcision:
"Clarence B. was addicted to the secret vise practiced among boys. I performed an orificial operation, consisting of circumcision... He needed the rightful punishment of cutting pains after his illicit pleasures."
[Report of a Few Cases of Circumcision. Journal of Orificial Surgery, vol. 7 (1898): pp.249-251.]
1898 Emmet L. Holt advocated for circumcision under the following reasoning:
"Circumcision should be done if phimosis exists, and even where it is not, the moral effect of the operation is sometimes of very great benefit."
[The Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood. New York: D. Appleton. 1897:696-698.]
1899 Denslow Lewis, a Chicago gynecologist, presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision (prepucectomy) at a meeting of the AMA in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful.” He treated 38 women with circumcision reporting “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.” [The Gynecologic consideration of the sexual act]

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2020.08.24 13:45 Indiana_Curmudgeon This is what happens in conservative groups on social media when you're an honest Patriot and oppose those the Oath call out as American Domestic Enemies since the litmus question on abortion. This is how corrupted the American Right is, downvoting America.

This is what happens in conservative groups on social media when you're an honest Patriot and oppose those the Oath call out as American Domestic Enemies since the litmus question on abortion. This is how corrupted the American Right is, downvoting America.

My Disclaimer & Bio: ►
My Motivation for doing this: ►
I bet my account on reddit & Quora that I cannot be proven wrong.
NPR AudiotP: Eisenhower's Military-Industrial Complex Warnting ►
Since the lies of the Christian Church put America on the brink of being the new Nazi nation of the world. ►
No Republican in office in over 50-years has kept their Word, Honor or Oath to America ►
A 100+year record of corruption in American politics & you can fact-check all of it. Long... ►
A 400k+ reddit Libertarian Group Prove They Aren't Libertarians By Their Own Hand.►
Are you talking to a Libertarian, not likely.
• If they can't answer basic history questions, how can they be a Libertarian? They can't.
1.What is the first duty of a Libertarian? 2.What spawned American Libertarianism? 3.Who is the most accomplished & highly acclaimed Libertarian in American history? 4.How do Libertarians save America & American tax dollars? 5.Why did Barry Goldwater vote against the 1967 Civil Rights Act? 6.Did you support the ACA/Obamacare, if so or no, why?
How can you claim to be something you don't even know the history of? You aren't its a lie this group tells itself.
State Primaries are unConstitutional as ran. ►
Why is US politics getting confused with using the term "deep state"? ►
The 2nd Amendment ►
Illegals & Immigrants ►
The 2020 Republican Party is the American Nazi Party ►
Trump's stormtroopers threatening civil war in America if Trump loses since 2016.
You know until Fascist had me perm banned on FB the first time I had been made one of the global moderators of this guys public science group. They had done that w/o our ever speaking to it in anyf fashion, just on my participation in the group. My best internet accomplishment to date, but I am trying for a better one right now.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Dr. Neil DeGrasse Tyson's Facebook Public Science Group

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2020.08.10 23:29 Fly0ver JNGrandma makes it clear: racist ideologies > her grandchildren being in relationships.

Hey all; I’ve mostly been a follower and commenter on this page as my JNGrandma passed four years ago, but lately while I’ve been reading, stories have been flooding back that I wanted to share.
Now, seeing her grandkids in relationships was basically the most important thing to JNG (she needs a nickname...); so much so, that she called me on my 25th birthday two months after I had moved 3,000 miles from anyone I knew to attend a prestigious graduate program just to tell me how amazing sister 1’s boyfriend was and to sob, asking me why I was choosing to die alone. Didn’t I know men don’t want to be with smart women?? She also spent years trying to convince me to get back with my abusive college boyfriend because didn’t I want to be a bride before I die? Divorce isn’t that hard! I couldn’t be picky with my choice of men. (Never dawned on her that perhaps I’m not exactly straight...)
All of this guilting happened before I even turned 30 and has a lot to do with my current personal issues around dating.
Anyway, in 2013, I had spent most of my life being told that my sisters and I being with a man was of the utmost importance—she even told me that she went to church and prayed every Sunday for a “happy accident”. When I asked her if she seriously prayed for a great grandchild out of wedlock (she pretended to be super Christian, so it surprised me), she spouted, “well, not from YOU. Not some one night stand baby! But from your cousins or sisters since they’re in serious relationships.” Cool. Cool cool cool.
But that november, I learned there was something even more important to her than our being in relationships: racial purity.
Now, racist JustNos are a dime a dozen, but she hadn’t ever really made this side of her known to me. For one, she’s always lived in large south western city where you basically need to know Spanish to be able to get by. Seriously: my dad—her GC son—can keep up a basic conversation in Spanish. I once asked him how he learned it, and he just said plainly, “reading billboards growing up.” Racist JustNos living in large south western cities are also not shocking, but secondly, anything my dad said was treated like a direct conversation with god by her, and he has always been staunchly anti-racist. Like having to pack us kids up and ship us off to my mom’s parents for awhile when we were little because he pissed of the Klan again type of anti-racist. Like read us Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letters from Birmingham Jail as bedtime stories type of anti-racist.
In November 2013, sister 1 had been dating now-BIL for 6 months. He had actually been part of my friend group that I introduced her to when she dumped her seemingly perfect boyfriend and moved 3,000 miles to live with me. What no one knew until I recounted it at their rehearsal dinner was that they had both told me that weekend on separate occasions that they were sure the other one was “the one.” They’re fucking adorable and it’s the best.
Now-BIL is half-Mexican, half-English. He has his dads English last name and his mom’s complexion and appearance.
Meanwhile, sister 2 was in a serious relationship with her long-term boyfriend who also lived in large city 3,000 miles away. They met because he’s good friends with sister 1. He’s Filipino.
It was thanksgiving, and I had my family at my place for dinner, plus now-BIL and then-long-term-boyfriend. JNG was in her city 3,000 mikes away, but obsessively calling because she was so excited my sisters had serious partners. She had threatened to come out for thanksgiving as well, but my dad had shut that down and suggested we skype her instead. She counted down the seconds.
Despite her excitement, when we called, it only lasted long enough for us all to say hi. She kept asking where boyfriends were, despite their being in the video. My dad, embarrassed, pointed them out again, since they had already been introduced. JNG stared and stared before reality hit her and her excited face fell to total shock and dismay.
Minutes after we hung up with her, she texted me SOS and to call her from the other room. I did, and she immediately wanted to know wtf was going on. I asked her what she meant and she said “I thought you said now-BIL went to very prestigious Ivy League for grad school.” He did. “But... how?” What do you mean? “How did he get into ivy league? Cause he’s, you know......” Mexican? “He must have been part of some diversity program, right? ivy league doesn’t just allow... people like him...”
(Side note: JNG somehow got into a very good college way back in the day when very good college finally allowed women in. It’s on par with ivy leagues. Despite the fact that she never finished beyond her freshman year because she met my grandfather, having gone to very good college was a major part of her identity and she fabricated a story that since she made it there, she could have gone to any Ivy League she wanted. She told people this until the day she died. Apparently the fact that someone who is Mexican actually did make it in on his own merits was exceptionally offensive to her.)
I told her yes they do, he actually graduated top of his class and hung up.
Sister 1 and BIL recently told us their chosen baby names for future niece/nephew that will hopefully join us in the next year or two. They’re all Spanish. And sister 2 is now discussing engagement with her serious middle eastern boyfriend. I cackle to myself wondering if JNG chose cremation because she knew she’d be rolling in her grave if she were buried instead.
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2020.08.10 19:44 CMacLaren On Rust, and Liberty

Akbar, a powerful vampire, was burnt when the Mother and Father, Akasha and Enkil, were put into the sun. He resides in Antioch, in search of the Mother and Father, and leaves his victims on the steps of the Temple.
Akbar threatens to kill Pandora unless Marius allows him to see and drink from the ancient couple. He drains Pandora to near death before Marius allows him to see the Mother and Father, and is later destroyed by Akasha when he attempts to drink from her.
Azim was one of the older vampires. He ruled as a god for a thousand years in a secret temple in the Himalayas, where those who went to worship him never returned alive.
He conducted disturbing rituals and entices Pandora to participate in them in return for Marius' location (when Marius gets trapped in the ice after Akasha awakens).
Akasha spares him during her worldwide slaughter, but for a purpose. She sees him as the ultimate symbol of vampire evil and explodes his body in front of human witnesses.
Daniel Molloy
Daniel was the recorder of Louis' confession that later became the story Interview with the Vampire. Born in 1955, Daniel comes across Armand in 1975, after he had recorded Louis' story.
He becomes Armand's mortal companion, but conflicts drive them apart. Armand continually refuses Daniel's requests for immortality.
Daniel turns to alcohol and becomes a mortal recipient of the dream of the twins. In 1985, Armand gives Daniel (who is dying) immortal life. He survives Akasha's worldwide slaughter of vampires.
Druid Vampire (God of the Grove)
The Druid Vampire, also known as the God of the Grove, was kept in an oak tree by the Druids to preside over their harvest and to ensure the fertility of their land. He was badly burnt when Akasha and Enkil were placed in the sun, and as a result of his weakened state, the Druids went in search for another god.
The Druids abduct Marius and return him to their god, who subsequently makes Marius a vampire. He is destroyed by the Druids when he tries to accompany Marius in search of reasons as to why so many vampires where burnt.
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An ancient Egyptian vampire, the Elder was the guardian of Akasha and Enkil prior to Marius. He was the cause of vampires everywhere being burnt (himself included), when he placed the ancient couple in the sun.
He does this to test the legend that the preservation or destruction of Akasha and Enkil is the determinant in the survival of the vampire race.
When Marius comes to remove the ancient couple from the Elder's care, the Elder becomes enraged and is killed by Akasha. Eric
Eric was made a vampire by Maharet around BC1000 at the mortal age of thirty. He survives Akasha's worldwide slaughter due to his immortal age of three thousand years and is one of the immortals that gather at Sonoma to stand against Akasha.
Flavius is a one-legged Greek mortal slave who Pandora falls in love with in Antioch. He becomes Pandora's companion and protector even after she is made a vampire.
To the disgust of Marius, Pandora makes Flavius a vampire as he lay on his deathbed riddled with disease. He was forty years old.
When Marius discovers what Pandora has done, he sends Flavius away. Before he left, Flavius thanked Pandora for the immortality she gave him.
Foundation Patriot
She was a peasant. She would go outside during the day in search of victims. Once, she approached a man carrying bread, she striked, sucking his fore-arm in order for him to drop the bread roll.She then, in the role of men in her step, remove the pan and press the bread with the smoke of his ability. During Badage droughts, she would feast upon her own brain. Badage drought in your brain, she woke up.
Laurent is a vampire Baby Jenks meets during Akasha's worldwide slaughter of vampires. He is killed during this event. (He may or may not be the same Laurent from Armand's first Parisian coven — this is unclear.
Madeleine was a Parisian doll maker who Claudia chose to be her mother and protector when Claudia feared Louis would leave her for Armand.
She was killed by Armand's coven, together with Claudia, the same year she was given immortal life. She had lost a child near Claudia's age when Louis made her a vampire, in 1862. Madeleine was the first vampire made by Louis.
Magnus, the maker of Lestat, gave himself immortality during the 1400s when he trapped a vampire and stole blood from it. He chose to make Lestat a vampire because of his courage.
On the same night he made Lestat a vampire, during the year 1780, he destroyed himself in a fire, leaving Lestat alone to discover and learn about his immortality.
The Woop-Town Supper
There was might in the whole world of the same face deers even when the metro man dances in the moon light and continues to splash fish in the water in an attempt to play some ball.
The Jenikens Chronicle
Also know as the Master of Supper in the nether regions. His head head would be imploded if the crisp the crops during the Badage civil wars. The Akasha used to use the gamers ass soer weapons because the butter on the boot would have even more then the yearsd of the yatke.
The Master of Might
The Nabonidus Chronicle is an ancient Babylonian text, part of a larger series of Babylonian Chronicles incribed in cuneiform script on clay tablets. It deals primarily with the reign of Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, covers the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus the Great and ends with the start of the reign of Cyrus's son Cambyses, spanning a period from 556 BC to some time after 539 BC. It provides a rare contemporary account of Cyrus's rise to power and is the main source of information on this period;[1] Amélie Kuhrt describes it as "the most reliable and sober [ancient] account of the fall of Babylon."[2]
The essence of destruction
Although he may be just one of these old factioned faction. The master of wisom used tp bein the legue of the slit babied mammothes. It is unsure to why the health of such a large gigantic spepas uses such large and strange men.
The Roaming Swordman
He is thought to combat large spiked black zombies who use baked potatoes as a lube to make their eyes work ffaster. It was unsure why he would take such risks for only the amount of the same young hill billy uses hte sweat of a large antelope and once they do, the large bird uses its pheromones to lure the large one with the old man happy.
The Nasty Banquote
She was born in Châteauroux in 1954. She remained there for eighteen months. During her childhood, with her three brothers and sisters, she moved from city to city, depending on the assignments her sub-prefect father received.
In 1976 she was awarded a Master of Philosophy by the Sorbonne, Paris, and in 1978 went on to complete an MA in philosophy and aesthetics at Université de Paris X - Nanterre. There, too, she completed a doctorate in philosophy in 1981. During those years she studied with a teacher she admires, Emmanuel Levinas, and her work focussed on the notion of asceticism in Christian mysticism.
Work He uses the same humans as the one whpo produced the sweat y but also fat men of the large bablionial ground of which the man with the square and hte strange heart. He would cry 'Why are there latino in my huron'.
Essential Reading Carradice I, & Price M.J., Coinage in the Greek World, London 1988. Sellwood, D. 'Minting' in D. Strong and D. Brown Roman Crafts, London 1976, pp.63-73
Catalogues & Reference Works (Some have very useful introductions)
Burnett A., Amandry M., Rippolès P.P., Roman Provincial Coinage, London 1992. Callataÿ F. de., L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, Louvain-la-Neuve 1997. Houghton A., Coins From the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, New York 1983. Lindgen H.C. & Kovacs F.L., I Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant, California 1985. Lindgen H.C. & Kovacs F.L., II Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints, California 1989. Lindgen H.C. & Kovacs F.L., III Ancient Bronze Coins from the Lindgren Collection, California 1993. Metcalf W.E., The Silver Coinage of Cappadocia, Vespasian-Commodus, New York 1996. Newell E.T., The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III, New York 1978 (reprint). Newell E.T., The Coinage of the Western Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III, New York 1977 (reprint).
Price, M.J., Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus, London 1991. SNG British Museum I, The Black Sea, London 1993. SNG Copenhagen
SNG von Aulock (Asia Minor mints) Secondary Literature: Monographs Balmuth, M.S. Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece, New York 2001. Burnett A., Wartenberg U., & Witschonke R. (edd.), Coins of Macedonia and Rome: Essays in Honour of Charles Hersh, London 1998. Butcher K., Roman Provincial Coins, Lonson 1988. Carradice I., Greek Coins, London 1995. Figuera T., The Power of Money: Coinage and Politics in the Athenian Empire, Pennsylvania 1998. Grierson P. Numismatics, Oxford 1975. Harl K.W., Civic Coins and Civic Politics, California 1987. Head B., Historia Nummorum, 2nd ed. Oxford 1911/67. Hill G.F., Coins of Ancient Sicily, London. Hill G.F., Historical Greek Coins, London. Howgego C., Ancient History from Coins. Jenkins G.K., Ancient Greek Coins, 2nd ed London 1990. Jones J.M., A Dictionary of Ancient Greek Coins, London 1986. Kraay C.M., Archaic and Classical Greek Coins, London 1976. Kraay C.M., Coins of Ancient Athens, Newcastle 1968.
Martin T.R., Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece, 1885. Meadows, A. and K. Shipton Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World Oxford 2001. Melville-Jones J.R., Testimonia Numaria, London 1993. Milne J.G., Greek Coinage, Oxford 1931. Mørkholm O., Early Hellenistic Coinage, Cambridge 1991. Nash D., Coinage in the Celtic World, London 1987. Oikonomides A.N., The Coins of Alexander the Great, Chicago 1981. Penn R.G., Medicine on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins, London 1994. Plant R., Greek Coin Types and Their Identification, London 1979. Ramage, A. and Craddock, P. King Croesus' Gold: Excavations and the History of Gold Refining, London 2000. Roberts W.R., The Ancient Boeotians and the Coinage of Boeotia, Chicago 1974. Rutter, N.K., Greek Coinage, Aylesbury 1983. Rutter, N.K., The Greek Coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily, London 1997. Rutter, N.K. Historia Nummorum, Italy, London 2001. Seltman C., Athens, its Hitsory and Coinage, Chicago 1974. Seltman C., Greek Coins, London 1977.
Troxell H., Studies in the Macedonian Coinage of Alexander the Great, New York 1997. Van Arsdell R.D., Celtic Coinage of Britain, London 1989.
Journal Articles
Beer L., 'Results of Coin Striking to simulate the Mint of Aegina' Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 47-51. Buttrey T.V., 'Pharaonic Imitations of Athenian Tetradrachms', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 137-40 Clay T., 'Metallurgy and Metallography in Numismatics', Numismatica e Antichita Classiche 17 (1988) 341-52. Hill G.F., 'Ancient Methods of Coining' NC 1922, 1-42. Holloway R.R., 'The Date of the First Greek Coins: Some Arguments from Style and Hoards', Revue Belge de Numismatique, 130 (1984) 5-17. Kagan D., 'The Dates of the Earliest Coins', AJA 86 (1982) 343-60 Kinns P., The Amphictyonic Coinage Reconsidered', NC 143 (1983) 1-22. Kraay C.M., 'The Archaic Owls of Athens: Classification and Chronology', NC 6 (1956) 43-68. Kroll J.H., 'From Wappenmünzen to Gorgoneia to Owls', ANSMN 26 (1981) 1-32. Kroll J.H. & Waggoner N.M., 'Dating the Earliest Coins of Athens, Corinth and Aegina', AJA 88 (1984) 325-40. Lewis D.M., 'The Chronolgy of the Athenian New Style Coinage', NC 11 (1962) 275-300. Mørkholm O., 'The Chronolgy of the New Style Coinage of Athens', ANSMN 29 (1984) 29-42. Mørkholm O., 'The "Behaviour" of Dies in the Hellenistic Period', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics1982, 209-14. Petrillo S. & Volk T.R., 'Old and New Worlds: Ancient Coinage and Modern Technology', in Information to Knowledge ed. Nisson E. & Schmidt K., Oxford 1995, pp.151-70. Price M.J., 'Early Greek Bronze Coinage', in Kraay C.M. & Jenkins G.K., Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson, 1968, pp. 90-104.
Price M.J. & Waggoner N., Archaic Greek Coinage: The Asyut Hoard, 1975. Robinson W.S.G., 'The Date of the Earliest Coins', NC 16 (1956) 1-8. Vickers M., ' Early Greek Coinage: A Reassessment', NC 145 (1985) 1-44. Walker A.S., 'Some Plated Coins from the Agora at Athens', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 132-6. Roman Bibliography
(Items marked * are available from Dr. Stanley Ireland)
Essential Reading Burnett A., Coinage in the Roman World, London 1988.
Catalogues & Reference Works (Some have very useful introductions) Crawford M.H., Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge 1974 Grierson P. & Mays M., Late Roman Coins, Washington 1992. Roman Imperial Coinage
Secondary Literature: Monographs Carson R.A.G., Coins of the Roman Empire, London 1990. Carson R.A.G., The Principal Coins of the Romans, London 1978. Casey J. & Reece R., Coins and the Archaeologist, London 1974/88.
Casey J., Understanding Ancient Coins, 1986. Crawford M.H., Coins and Money under the Roman Republic, London 1985. Duncan-Jones, R. Money and Government in the Roman Empire, Cambridge 1994. Foss C., Roman Historical Coins, London 1990. Fox J., Roman Coins and How to Collect Them, London 1983. Giacosa G., Women of the Caesars, Milan. Harl K.W., Coinage in the Roman Economy, Baltimore 1996. Harlan M., Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins 63-49BC, London 1995. Hill P.V., The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types, London 1989. Reece R., Identifying Roman Coins, London 1986. Sear D.R., The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperatores 49-27BC, London 1998. Thomsen R., Early Roman Coinage, Copenhagen 1974. Thurlow B.K. & Vecchi I.G., Italian Cast Coinage, Italian Aes Grave, London 1979.
Journal Articles
Bruun P., 'The Source Value of Imperial Coin Portraits (the fourth century A.D.)', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics1982, 551-9. Burnett A.M., Craddock P.T., Preston K., 'New Light on the Origins of Orichalcum', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 263-8. Burnett A., The Currency of Italy from the Hannibalic War to the Reign of Augustus', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 1982, 125-37. Burnett A.M., 'Clipped Siliquae and the End of Roman Britain', Britannia1984, 163-8. Burnett A.M., 'The Iconography of Roman Coin Types', NC 146 (1986) 67-75.
Burnett A.M., 'The Beginnings of Roman Coinage', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica, 36 (1989) 33-64. Buttrey T.V.,' On the Retariffing of the Roman Denarius', ANSMN 7 (1957) 57-65. Buttrey T.V., 'The Denarii of P. Crepusius and Roman Republican Mint Organization', ANSMN 21 (1976) 67-108. Buttrey T.V., 'Calculating Ancient Coin Production: Facts and Fantasies', Numismatic Chronicle (1993) 335-51. Carson R.A.G., 'The Date of the Capture of Valerian I', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 461-5. Cody J., 'Stylistic Trends in the Representation of Godesses on the Roman Republican Coinage', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 283-8. Cope L.H., 'The Metallurgical Analysis of Roman Imperial Silver and AesCoinage', in Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage ed. Hall E.T. & Metcalf D.W., RNS special publ. 1972, pp.1-47. Cope L.H., 'Surface-Silvered Ancient Coins', in Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage ed. Hall E.T. & Metcalf D.W., RNS special publ. 1972, pp.261-78. Crawford M.H., 'The coinage of the Age of Sulla', NC (1964) 141- 58. Crawford M.H., 'Plated Coins - False Coins', NC (1968) 55-9. Duncan-Jones R.P., 'The Currency of Italy from the Hannibalic War to the Reign of Augustus', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica, 29 (1982) 125-37. Ehrhardt C.T.H.R., 'Roman Coin Types and the Roman Public', Jahrbuch für Nimismatik und Geldgeschichte 34 (1984) 41-54. Kenyon R.F., 'The Countermark PROB on Coins of Claudius I from Britain', NC 148 (1988) 53-61. Kleiner D.E.E., 'Politics and Gender in the Pictorial Propaganda of Antony and Octavian', Echos du Monde Classique 11 (1992) 357-67. Mattingly H.B., 'New Light on the Roman Victoriate', in Kraay C.M. & Jenkins G.K., Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson, 1968, pp210-28. Mattingly H.B., The Management of the Roman Republican Mint', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 1982, 9-46. Metcalf W.E., 'The Flavians in the East' Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 321-39. Millar F., 'The Aerarium and its Officials', JRS 1964.
Newman R., 'A Dialogue of Power in the Coinage of Antony and Octavian', AJN 2 (1990) 37-63. Ramage E., 'Denigration of Predecessors under Claudius, Galba and Vespasian', Historia 1983, 200-14. Reece R., 'Economic History from Roman Site-Finds', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 495-502. Shotter D.C.A., 'The Principate of Nero: Some Observations on the Coin Evidence', Historia 1983. 216-26.
Sutherland C.H.R., 'Early Imperial Mints in the Western Provinces: The Direction of Coin Types', Numismatica e Antichita Classiche 12 (1983) 151-7. Tyler P., 'Analyses of Mid-Third Century Roman Antoniniani as Historical Evidence', in Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage ed. Hall E.T., & Metcalf D.W., RNS special publ. 1972, pp.249-60. Wallace-Hadrill R., 'Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus', JRS 1986, 66-87.
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2020.08.08 03:39 tooandahalf This Generation - with WOL references

Someone asked on here about references to WOL for "this generation"
I tried to format this in a manner that might be something that could be shared with a PIMI. I sent something similar to couple people from an anonymous email address saying I was doing personal study and was having trouble understanding this issue. Unsurprisingly they never got back to me. Funny how quotes from WOL taken in context can become apostate.
This is reworded to be more formal than what I sent. This is a mashup of a few sources including JWfacts and the flipflop doctrine, but I removed any references that don’t appear on WOL so all things can be linked.
Edit: There are two versions of the generation teaching that occur prior to 1950 but since there is not references on WOL that might send up apostate alarms, so those are not included in this list.
Brother Splane explained the overlapping generation in the broadcast as being the people that saw the events of 1914, and those contemporaries who knew that first group of people. Fred Franz was used as an example. Fred Franz lived to 99 years of age, dying in 1992. The group that knew Brother Franz would have been anointed in 1992 at the latest and been a contemporary of his to be part of “This Generation”.
If that second part of the overlapping generation lived as long as Brother Franz, this system could go on until 2071 potentially. That’s a length of a single generation totaling 178 years.
Something that Brother Splane didn’t mention was that Brother Russel would have to be included in “this generation” because he witnessed the events of 1914. He also overlapped with Brother Franz. Russell was born in 1852 and died in 1916. That means “this generation” could potentially be 219 years long.
If you are 20 years old today that would mean you would be part of the same generation as someone born in 1822 or 1781.
What does the Bible say about a generation and how long it lasts?
Matthew 1:17: The same book where Jesus referred to "this generation". For each of the three set each father son and grandson is a distinct generation. There are no overlapping generations. If you tally up the time for each of these 14 generations and divide to see the average you get the following.
17 All the generations, then, from Abraham until David were 14 generations; from David until the deportation to Babylon,+ 14 generations; from the deportation to Babylon until the Christ, 14 generations.
Genesis 50:22: 110/3 is 37 years. The father and son are listed as two generations.
22 And Joseph continued to dwell in Egypt, he and the household of his father, and Joseph lived for 110 years. 23 Joseph saw the third generation of Eʹphra·im’s sons,+ also the sons of Maʹchir,+ Ma·nasʹseh’s son. They were born upon Joseph’s knees.*
Jehovah had the Israelites wander in the wilderness for 40 years until the generation had died, but their children would inherit the promised land. If overlapping generations were applied the Israelite children would be babies to teens, after 40 years they would be in their 40s to late 50s when they went into the promised land. If ‘this generation’ meant contemporaries and an overlapping generation then it would have needed to be for much longer until all the kids died in the wilderness too.
Deuteronomy 2:14: 38 years and similar to the wandering in the wilderness above
The time it took us to walk from Kaʹdesh-barʹne·a until we crossed the Valley* of Zeʹred was 38 years, until the entire generation of the men of war had perished from the camp, just as Jehovah had sworn to them.
Job 42:16: 140/4=35 years. Each generation is a generation not overlapping and the time is pretty close to the other scriptures
16 After this Job lived for 140 years, and he saw his children and his grandchildren—four generations
Watchtower 2004 talks about prophecy being fulfilled for the Israelites in Egypt and how they were rescued in 4 generations.
The Israelites were well received in Egypt in the days of Jacob’s son Joseph. The Egyptians later subjected them to brutal slave labor, but true to God’s promise, within a period of four overlapping generations from the time they entered Egypt, these descendants of Abraham were liberated from Egyptian bondage.*
If that same overlapping definition were used it would have been maybe one generation. There can be generations that exist at the same time obviously but not be part of the same generation. Boomers, Millennials and Zoomers are all alive at the same time but they’re not the same generation.
Jerusalem was destroyed 37 years after Jesus said this generation will not pass away.
What does the Watchtower say about this though that might explain it better?
Here’s the list of explanations on “this generation” on Watchtower Online Library.
1951 Watchtower: This generation = worldly people who were alive in 1914.
The actual meaning of these words is, beyond question, that which takes a “generation” in the ordinary sense, as at Mark 8:12 and Acts 13:36, or for those who are living at the given period. So it was on “this generation” that the accumulated judgments were to fall. (Matt. 23:36) This therefore means that from 1914 a generation shall not pass till all is fulfilled, and amidst a great time of trouble.
1952 Watchtower: the same teaching.
Some persons living A.D. 1914 when the series of foretold events began will also be living when the series ends with Armageddon. All the events will come within the span of a generation. There are hundreds of millions of persons living now that were living in 1914, and many millions of these persons could yet live a score or more years. Just when the lives of the majority of them will be cut short by Armageddon we cannot say.
1954 Watchtower: the same teaching
“Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.” What a consoling fact that is! All these things would happen in one generation! The sudden worsening of world conditions since World War I, which broke out forty years ago, was here foretold to end within one generation, within the lifetime of people who are now at least 40 years old!
1971 Awake: same teaching
How long a period of time is covered by the “last days”? Jesus limited it at most to ‘one generation’ from beginning to end. (Matt. 24:34) This means that some persons who saw the beginning of the “last days” in 1914 would live to see the end. That end will come when God displays his almighty power to crush out of existence the prevailing wicked system of things.—Dan. 2:44.
1975 Watchtower: same teaching and it states there’s no doubt this is correct.
22 When will it be, then, that the Son of man comes with destructive power to cleanse this earth of all who love the way of unrighteousness? Jesus himself answers: “Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.” (Matt. 24:34; Mark 13:30) Which “generation” is that? The one that has witnessed the events in fulfillment of prophecy since 1914 C.E. There is no doubt about the truthfulness of what Jesus said. Forcefully he added: “Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will by no means pass away.”—Matt. 24:35; Mark 13:31; compare Matthew 5:18.
1978 Watchtower (change): This generation = Christians (Witnesses) and not worldly people who saw 1914. This did not apply to babies.
This helps us to understand “generation” in Matthew 24:34. In common English usage today “generation” might be used for (1) all persons who were born and who live about the same time, or (2) the average span between the birth of parents and that of their children, usually 20 to 30 years. Which did Jesus mean? Obviously not the latter, for in its first application the “generation” ran from 33 C.E. until 70 C.E., or at least 37 years.
Also, it is evident that by the word “generation” Jesus did not mean just the Jewish children born in 33 C.E. Luke relates that after being asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom was coming, Jesus told his disciples: “[The Son of man] must undergo many sufferings and be rejected by this generation.” (Luke 17:20-25) That rejection certainly was not by newborn babies. Likewise, the way things worked out shows that the “generation” he spoke of in Matthew 24:34 included his listeners and others who could discern the fulfillment of his words from 33 C.E. onward until Jerusalem’s destruction.
Thus, when it comes to the application in our time, the “generation” logically would not apply to babies born during World War I. It applies to Christ’s followers and others who were able to observe that war and the other things that have occurred in fulfillment of Jesus’ composite “sign.” Some of such persons “will by no means pass away until” all of what Christ prophesied occurs, including the end of the present wicked system.
1980 Watchtower: The same BUT specifies that ‘this generation’ could include people that saw an event maybe as young as 10.
What, then, is the “generation” that “will by no means pass away until all these things occur”? It does not refer to a period of time, which some have tried to interpret as 30, 40, 70 or even 120 years, but, rather, it refers to people, the people living at the “beginning of pangs of distress” for this condemned world system. It is the generation of people who saw the catastrophic events that broke forth in connection with World War I from 1914 onward.
As indicated by an article on page 56 of U.S. News & World Report of January 14, 1980, “If you assume that 10 is the age at which an event creates a lasting impression on a person’s memory,” then there are today more than 13 million Americans who have a “recollection of World War I.” And if the wicked system of this world survived until the turn of the century, which is highly improbable in view of world trends and the fulfillment of Bible prophecy, there would still be survivors of the World War I generation. However, the fact that their number is dwindling is one more indication that “the conclusion of the system of things” is moving fast toward its end.
1984 Watchtower (slight change): The same BUT ‘this generation’ now DOES include babies.
If Jesus used “generation” in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the babies of that generation are now 70 years old or older. And others alive in 1914 are in their 80’s or 90’s, a few even having reached a hundred. There are still many millions of that generation alive. Some of them “will by no means pass away until all things occur.”—Luke 21:32.
1988 Awake: This article defines the Greek word for generation. Seems that should be what Jesus meant, since that’s the word he used. The Greek word refers to people born at the same time or witnessing the same event. So a generation could here be the length of a human life span so 70-80 years. That would mean there could be an overlapping generation, but it would ONLY work with Brother Russell’s older generation and Brother Franz’s younger generation, and not anyone born after 1914 (therefore none of the current Governing Body could be included.)
How Long Can a Generation Last?
The American Legion Magazine pointed out that 4,743,826 U.S. men and women had participated in World War I. But in 1984 only 272,000 remained alive, and they were dying off at an average of nine every hour. Does that mean, then, that the generation of 1914 has already disappeared?
The Greek word for generation is geneá, used by Matthew, Mark, and Luke in their accounts of Jesus’ words. It can have different applications according to the context. However, The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology defines it as: “Those born at the same time . . . Associated with this is the meaning: the body of one’s contemporaries, an age.” A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament states: “The sum total of those born at the same time, expanded to include all those living at a given time generation, contemporaries.” These definitions allow for all those who were born around the time of a historic event and all those who were alive at that time.
J. A. Bengel states in his New Testament Word Studies: “The Hebrews . . . reckon seventy-five years as one generation, and the words, shall not pass away, intimate that the greater part of that generation [of Jesus’ day] indeed, but not the whole of it, should have passed away before all should be fulfilled.” This became true by the year 70 C.E. when Jerusalem was destroyed.
Likewise today, most of the generation of 1914 has passed away. However, there are still millions on earth who were born in that year or prior to it. And although their numbers are dwindling, Jesus’ words will come true, “this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.” This is yet another reason for believing that Jehovah’s thieflike day is imminent. So, what events should alert Christians watch for?
1988 Watchtower: The same. Also the article says it is definitely one generation of the above definition b(not overlapping) and those people from 1914.
Might it be, though, that the sign could occur over the span of many human generations? No. The sign is to occur during one particular generation. The same generation that witnessed the beginning of the sign will also witness its climax in “a tribulation such as has not occurred from the beginning of the creation.” Three historians, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, recorded Jesus’ assurance of this.—Mark 13:19,30; Matthew 24:13, 21, 22, 34; Luke 21:28, 32.
There is, however, the danger of becoming impatient. Seventy-four years have passed since the outbreak of World War I in 1914. From a human viewpoint, this may seem a very long time. But some eagle-eyed Christians who saw World War I are still very much alive. Their generation has not passed away.
1995 Watchtower (change): This generation = not a group of people or a length of time, but people of similar characteristics and it now applies to worldly people. ‘This Generation’ now doesn't have to do with 1914 specifically but that people would have a similar attitude after that. It also included worldly people again because they are called blind guides. It also specifies that a generation should not be used to count time to estimate when the system will end, but that it is a historical period. This is a complete change from earlier definitions, all of which had definite periods, and all of which were used to show how soon the end of the system was.
Eager to see the end of this evil system, Jehovah’s people have at times speculated about the time when the “great tribulation” would break out, even tying this to calculations of what is the lifetime of a generation since 1914. However, we “bring a heart of wisdom in,” not by speculating about how many years or days make up a generation, but by thinking about how we “count our days” in bringing joyful praise to Jehovah. (Psalm 90:12) Rather than provide a rule for measuring time, the term “generation” as used by Jesus refers principally to contemporary people of a certain historical period, with their identifying characteristics.*
  1. What does a history professor write about “the generation of 1914,” and how does this tie in with Jesus’ prophecy?
7 In line with the above, professor of history Robert Wohl wrote in his book The Generation of 1914: “A historical generation is not defined by its chronological limits . . . It is not a zone of dates.”
Therefore, in the final fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy today, “this generation” apparently refers to the peoples of earth who see the sign of Christ’s presence but fail to mend their ways.
Another excerpt.
18 What, then, is the “generation” so frequently referred to by Jesus in the presence of his disciples? What did they understand by his words: “This generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur”? Surely, Jesus was not departing from his established use of the term “this generation,” which he consistently applied to the contemporary masses with their “blind guides” who together made up the Jewish nation. (Matthew 15:14) “This generation” experienced all the distress foretold by Jesus and then passed away in an unequaled “great tribulation” on Jerusalem.
1997 Watchtower: The same. Again, the article says that we shouldn’t count time from 1914 to see how close the end, even if that’s what was done in all references pre-1995. The current definition of ‘this generation’ has no definitive end date and could last indefinitely.
With similar sincere intentions, God’s servants in modern times have tried to derive from what Jesus said about “generation” some clear time element calculated from 1914. For instance, one line of reasoning has been that a generation can be 70 or 80 years, made up of people old enough to grasp the significance of the first world war and other developments; thus we can calculate more or less how near the end is.
However well-meaning such thinking was, did it comply with the advice Jesus went on to give? Jesus said: “Concerning that day and hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but only the Father. . . . Keep on the watch, therefore, because you do not know on what day your Lord is coming.”—Matthew 24:36-42.
So the recent information in The Watchtower about “this generation” did not change our understanding of what occurred in 1914. But it did give us a clearer grasp of Jesus’ use of the term “generation,” helping us to see that his usage was no basis for calculating—counting from 1914—how close to the end we are.
2008 Watchtower (change): This Generation = All anointed people on Earth who can/could discern the sign of Jesus’ return. There is no an end date, just before there are no more anointed. ‘This generation’ could continue indefinitely.
15 Those without spiritual understanding today have felt that there has been no “striking observableness” with regard to the sign of Jesus’ presence. They reason that everything is continuing on as it did in the past. (2 Pet. 3:4) On the other hand, Christ’s faithful anointed brothers, the modern-day John class, have recognized this sign as if it were a flash of lightning and have understood its true meaning. As a class, these anointed ones make up the modern-day “generation” of contemporaries that will not pass away “until all these things occur.”* This suggests that some who are Christ’s anointed brothers will still be alive on earth when the foretold great tribulation begins.
2010 Watchtower (change): This Generation = The current understanding. This generation is two overlapping generations. There is now a cut off again because the end must come before the second group of anointed dies off and once again the nearness of the end of the system can be guessed at. This version goes back three version to the understanding in 1988, but in addition adds the overlapping second set of anointed. From 1951 to now ‘this generation’ went from applying to worldly people to the anointed to worldly to anointed once again.
14 What does this explanation mean to us? Although we cannot measure the exact length of “this generation,” we do well to keep in mind several things about the word “generation”: It usually refers to people of varying ages whose lives overlap during a particular time period; it is not excessively long; and it has an end. (Ex. 1:6) How, then, are we to understand Jesus’ words about “this generation”? He evidently meant that the lives of the anointed who were on hand when the sign began to become evident in 1914 would overlap with the lives of other anointed ones who would see the start of the great tribulation. That generation had a beginning, and it surely will have an end.
The Insight book says a generation commonly refers to all persons who were born about the same time.
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2020.08.04 06:07 Fly0ver JNG makes it clear that her racist ideologies > the importance of her granddaughters being in relationships.

Hey all; I’ve mostly been a follower and commenter on this page as my JNGrandma passed four years ago, but lately while I’ve been reading, stories have been flooding back that I wanted to share.
Old story. App won’t let me flair for some reason. ¯_(ツ)_/¯
Now, seeing her grandkids in relationships was basically the most important thing to JNG (she needs a nickname...); so much so, that she called me on my 25th birthday two months after I had moved 3,000 miles from anyone I knew to attend a prestigious graduate program just to tell me how amazing sister 1’s boyfriend was and to sob, asking me why I was choosing to die alone. Didn’t I know men don’t want to be with smart women?? She also spent years trying to convince me to get back with my abusive college boyfriend because didn’t I want to be a bride before I die? Divorce isn’t that hard! I couldn’t be picky with my choice of men. (Never dawned on her that perhaps I’m not exactly straight...)
All of this guilting happened before I even turned 30 and has a lot to do with my current personal issues around dating.
Anyway, in 2013, I had spent most of my life being told that my sisters and I being with a man was of the utmost importance—she even told me that she went to church and prayed every Sunday for a “happy accident”. When I asked her if she seriously prayed for a great grandchild out of wedlock (she pretended to be super Christian, so it surprised me), she spouted, “well, not from YOU. Not some one night stand baby! But from your cousins or sisters since they’re in serious relationships.” Cool. Cool cool cool.
But that november, I learned there was something even more important to her than our being in relationships: racial purity.
Now, racist JustNos are a dime a dozen, but she hadn’t ever really made this side of her known to me. For one, she’s always lived in large south western city where you basically need to know Spanish to be able to get by. Seriously: my dad—her GC son—can keep up a basic conversation in Spanish. I once asked him how he learned it, and he just said plainly, “reading billboards growing up.” Racist JustNos living in large south western cities are also not shocking, but secondly, anything my dad said was treated like a direct conversation with god by her, and he has always been staunchly anti-racist. Like having to pack is kids up and ship us off to my mom’s parents for awhile when we were little because he pissed of the Klan again type of anti-racist. Like read us Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letters from Birmingham Jail as bedtime stories type of anti-racist.
In November 2013, sister 1 had been dating now-BIL for 6 months. He had actually been part of my friend group that I introduced her to when she dumped her seemingly perfect boyfriend and moved 3,000 miles to live with me. What no one knew until I recounted it at their rehearsal dinner was that they had both told me that weekend on separate occasions that they were sure the other one was “the one.” They’re fucking adorable and it’s the best.
Now-BIL is half-Mexican, half-English. He has his dads English last name and his mom’s complexion and appearance.
Meanwhile, sister 2 was in a serious relationship with her long-term boyfriend who also lived in large city 3,000 miles away. They met because he’s good friends with sister 1. He’s Filipino.
It was thanksgiving, and I had my family at my place for dinner, plus now-BIL and then-long-term-boyfriend. JNG was in her city 3,000 mikes away, but obsessively calling because she was so excited my sisters had serious partners. She had threatened to come out for thanksgiving as well, but my dad had shut that down and suggested we skype her instead. She counted down the seconds.
Despite her excitement, when we called, it only lasted long enough for us all to say hi. She kept asking where boyfriends were, despite their being in the video. My dad, embarrassed, pointed them out again, since they had already been introduced. JNG stared and stared before reality hit her and her excited face fell to total shock and dismay.
Minutes after we hung up with her, she texted me SOS and to call her from the other room. I did, and she immediately wanted to know wtf was going on. I asked her what she meant and she said “I thought you said now-BIL went to very prestigious Ivy League for grad school.” He did. “But... how?” What do you mean? “How did he get into ivy league? Cause he’s, you know......” Mexican? “He must have been part of some diversity program, right? ivy league doesn’t just allow... people like him...”
(Side note: JNG somehow got into a very good college way back in the day when very good college finally allowed women in. It’s on par with ivy leagues. Despite the fact that she never finished beyond her freshman year because she met my grandfather, having gone to very good college was a major part of her identity and she fabricated a story that since she made it there, she could have gone to any Ivy League she wanted. She told people this until the day she died. Apparently the fact that someone who is Mexican actually did make it in on his own merits was exceptionally offensive to her.)
I told her yes they do, he actually graduated top of his class and hung up.
Sister 1 and BIL recently told us their chosen baby names for future niece/nephew that will hopefully join us in the next year or two. They’re all Spanish. And sister 2 is now discussing engagement with her serious middle eastern boyfriend. I cackle to myself wondering if JNG chose cremation because she knew she’d be rolling in her grave if she were buried instead.
submitted by Fly0ver to u/Fly0ver [link] [comments]

2020.08.02 23:20 maxbfortin Sentier International des Appalaches - QC

An English version can be found here.

Le SIA-QC en général

Le SIA-QC, ou GR-A1, est un sentier de 650 km qui relie la ville de Matapédia à Cap-Gaspé, au Parc national du Canada Forillon. Vous y trouverez des plateformes de camping, des abris et des refuges.
Pour plus d'informations, consulter leur site web.

Planifier un thru-hike

L'option à privilégier si vous planifiez la Grande Traversée est de vous procurer le Passeport de Grande Traversée. Le passeport donne accès à toutes les plateformes/abris/refuges du SIA, sans nécessiter de réservation au jour le jour (ce qui est normalement le cas). Toutefois, cela exclut tous les sites qui se situent à l'intérieur du Parc national de la Gaspésie. Pour ceux-ci, vous devez réserver d'avance vos sites avec la SÉPAQ directement. Le passeport de Grande Traversée inclue les plateformes et abris dans le Parc national du Canada Forillon, mais PAS les campings Bon-Ami ou Petit-Gaspé.
Le passeport coûte 340$ + taxes et donne accès au randonneur aux sites mentionnés ci-haut, mais advenant que d'autres gens aient une réservation spécifiquement pour la journée où vous y êtes, ils ont priorité. Si l'abri et toutes les plateformes sont déjà utilisées, vous devrez vous installer au sol, en respectant le Sans Traces. Cela ne m'a pas posé problème, aux dates de ma randonnée, mais pourrait être problématique plus tard en saison.
Pour le Parc national de la Gaspésie et le Parc national du Canada Forillon, vous devez acquitter vos frais d'admission quotidiens pour chaque jour où vous y serez, à moins d'être détenteur d'une carte annuelle/saisonnière.
Les cartes topographiques du SIA sont disponibles sur le site web du SIA. Il est également possible d'y télécharger les cartes Avenza.
De plus, le SIA vous demandera une copie de votre itinéraire, afin d'en valider avec vous la faisabilité, et de mieux prévoir où il pourrait y avoir une forte concentration de randonneurs.

Ma randonnée : 26/06/2020 au 18/07/2020 - Photos!

Jour 0: J'ai conduit avec ma soeur jusqu'au Camping Nature Aventure à Matapédia, près du départ du sentier. Il est également possible de laisser gratuitement un véhicule à long terme à ce camping.
Jour 1: Matapédia au Refuge Turcotte - 19 km Départ tardif en raison d'un brunch. En ce début de saison, il était parfois difficile de distinguer le sentier des pistes d'orignaux. Heureusement, il y a de nombreux marqueurs de sentier aux arbres. J'ai ramassé une sandale Croc tombée dans l'espoir de la remettre à son propriétaire. Le refuge Turcotte était toujours en rénovation, à mon passage. J'ai installé mon moustiquaire à l'intérieur en raison des milliards de moustiques ayant élu domicile à l'intérieur, et me suis endormi à leur douce musique de vampires insatiables.
Jour 2: Refuge Turcotte au Refuge du Quartz - 27 km
Journée du Canyon du Ruisseau Clark, et donc journée de pieds mouillés! Le sentier traverse le ruisseau 9 fois en 2km. Il y avait des ponts, la plupart pourris ou affaissés, au moment de mon passage. Les bénévoles du SIA ont depuis érigé plusieurs nouveaux ponts! Dans le canyon, il y a un microclimat particulier et une végétation dense et imposante, des fougères de presque 2m de haut! L'eau est y est très froide, mais le ruisseau n'est pas large, quelques mètres tout au plus. J'ai vu ce jour-là mes deux premiers orignaux du sentier. J'ai aussi rencontré Potoum et Potoum, deux filles qui ont planifié 43 jours sur le sentier pour prendre le temps de l'apprécier à leur rythme, c'est-à-dire un rythme Potoum-Potoum. J'ai aussi rencontré Student (Stu), un gars qui s'est lancé dans cette aventure sans aucune expérience de backpacking. Compte tenu des circonstances, il s'est très bien préparé. En soirée, on l'ai aidé à se débarrasser des items non-essentiels, qu'il a par la suite renvoyés chez lui. On a passé une très belle soirée près de la rivière Assemetquagan.
Jour 3: Refuge du Quartz à Abri Sainte-Marguerite - 23 km
La montée tout de suite après le Refuge du Quartz est assez brutale! Dans la journée, j'ai rattrapé Sporky, le randonneur à la Croc manquante. J'étais bien content de lui remettre son colis (d'où mon nom de FedEx). J'ai vu mes premières éoliennes de très près! Près de l'abri de Sainte-Marguerite, il y a un dépanneur où il est possible de prendre une douche et recharger ses électroniques.
Jour 4: Abri Sainte-Marguerite à Abri des Chutes - 37 km
Dès 4h, j'étais réveillé. J'ai donc ramassé mes choses et suis parti de bonne heure. J'ai réalisé que j'avais planifié récupérer ma boîte de ravitaillement au bureau de poste d'Amqui le 1er juillet, sauf que les bureaux de poste sont fermés les jours fériés. J'ai donc accéléré le pas pour m'y rendre en 2 jours au lieu de trois, et récupérer mon colis le 30 juin en après-midi, au lieu du 1er juillet. Stu m'a rattrapé dans la journée et on a poursuivi ensemble. À Causapscal, il a renvoyé chez lui 2.4 kg de matériel. Il était trop tôt pour que les cantines ouvrent, ô malheur. Le sentier après Causapscal était en manque d'entretien, mais nous a offert de beaux points de vue, ainsi qu'un balbuzard pêcheur avec un poisson dans ses serres! L'abri des Chutes était envahi de mouches à chevreuil, les plateformes ont fait le travail. On a pu observer les saumons sauter dans la chute!
Jour 5: Abri des Chutes à Abri du camping d'Amqui - 39 km
Stu s'était fait de vilaines ampoules, on s'est entendus pour se retrouver à Amqui le lendemain soir, après mon zéro. J'ai eu de la difficulté à trouver le sentier après avoir vraisemblablement manqué un virage dans les sentiers de VTT. J'ai décidé de traverser un terrain en défriche au lieu de revenir sur mes pas, et ça a payé, j'ai retrouvé le sentier peu avant le Mont Thabor. La vue y était belle, mais les moustiques et les mouches à chevreuil m'ont forcer à quitter le secteur à la course. J'ai atteint le bureau de poste d'Amqui en milieu d'après-midi et j'ai continué le 4-5km d'extra pour se rendre au camping municipal d'Amqui, où un abri du SIA est disponible pour les longs randonneurs. Christian, le premier à être parti de Matapédia cette année, y était déjà. On a profité des douches et de la buanderie, et Stu m'a texté qu'il s'était rendu à Amqui finalement, et qu'il s'était pris une chambre d'hôtel en ville.
Jour 6: Abri d'Amqui à un motel d'Amqui - 0km
J'ai fait des courses avec Stu et on s'est gâté à l'épicerie et au resto/microbrasserie La Captive que je recommande fortement. La nuit dans un lit a fait du bien.
Jour 7: Amqui à Abri de Saint-Vianney - 32 km
La portion sur route en sortant d'Amqui est longue et ennuyante. Stu était parti 1h30 avant moi, alors j'étais seul, et en prime, il a plu quelques heures. Au moment où j'ai atteint l'Abri des 3 Soeurs (très bel abri), le soleil est sorti et j'en ai profité pour faire sécher mes vêtements et souliers. Le reste de la journée s'est déroulé sur des sentiers de VTT et des chemins forestiers. J'ai rejoint Stu à l'Abri de Saint-Vianney, situé en périphérie du parc municipal, derrière les structures de jeux pour enfants. La clé est disponible au dépanneur en face. L'eau de Saint-Vianney est mauvaise. La douche n'était pas accessible en raison de la COVID. Il y a un resto-bar qu'on n'a pas visité.
Jour 8: Abri Saint-Vianney à Abri des Pitounes - 32 km
En quittant Saint-Vianney, le sentier semble monter au sommet de la Montagne à la Croix, mais ce n'est pas le cas, comme nous l'avons appris une fois au sommet. Il faut plutôt emprunter la route de gravier qui contourne la montagne par la gauche. La vue était pas mal, au moins! On est arrivés à la Réserve faunique de Matane, mais Stu s'est foulé la cheville, pour la 2e fois de son parcours. On s'est donc séparés au Poste John... J'ai alors entamé la Réserve seul, réputée pour être la section la plus difficile du SIA. Le sentier y est étroit, sauvage, peu entretenu, détrempé par les fougères et compte davantage de crottin d'orignal par mètre carré que n'importe où ailleurs (estimé non-scientifique). L'abri des Pitounes était bien, mais je préfère les plateformes lorsque la météo est clémente.
Jour 9: Abri des Pitounes à Abri du Lac Matane - 27 km
Il est devenu clair qu'il serait bien plus difficile de progresser dans la réserve. Les fougères chargées de rosée, la chaleur et l'humidité font en sorte qu'on est détrempé, peu importe ce qu'on fait. Il semble y avoir des switchbacks quand ce n'est pas nécessaire, et vice versa. Le terrain est abrupt et accidenté. Avec la météo, je n'ai pas vu grand chose jusqu'au Lac Matane, après une descente importante. L'Abri du Lac Matane vaut le détour! Le vent se charge des mouches et le lac est magnifique. Dans le cahier des randonneurs, j'ai vu que Stu était déjà passé par là! Sa cheville s'était rapidement calmée et il a fait du pouce jusqu'au Lac Matane la veille. Il avait donc maintenant une journée complète d'avance sur moi!
Jour 10: Abri du Lac Matane à Abri du Lac Beaulieu - 25 km
De loin ma journée la plus exigeante, physiquement et mentalement. La montée après le Lac Matane était abrupte et la suite était détrempée, accidentée, isolée, sauvage. La pluie a commencé à 10h pour ne s'arrêter que le lendemain. Au moment où je passais le sommet du Mont Fernand-Fafard, des éclairs ont commencé à tomber non loin à l'est. J'ai passé les 5 autres sommets de la journée rapidement, dans la tempête. La température a chuté à près de 10C et j'étais détrempé de pluie et de sueur, en plus d'avoir une douleur à l'intérieur de ma cuisse droite et d'être épuisé. En approchant l'abri du Lac Beaulieu, démoralisé, j'ai entendu «BIN NON» venir de l'abri. C'était Stu, et en plus, il venait de faire du café! J'étais sauvé. De son côté, sa cheville allait bien et lui aussi était content de retrouver un partenaire de rando.
Jour 11: Abri du Lac Beaulieu à Abri du Ruisseau Bascon - 24 km
L'ascension après le Lac Beaulieu commence raide, mais se calme rapidement. Le sommet de Nicol-Albert est cool, mais le meilleur de cette montagne, c'est le détour au Monolithe du Bonhomme. Il faut descendre quelques cordes dans un passage étroit pour arriver au monolithe qui siège fièrement tout près du gouffre. Sur la gauche, que des nuages, mais sur la droite, vue dégagée sur la vallée de la rivière Cap-Chat, époustouflant! La descente est longue et technique, mais parsemée de nombreuses chutes dans lesquelles il faisait bon se rafraîchir. On a récupéré nos boîtes placées par les gens du SIA à l'abri du Petit-Sault, où on s'est également reposés. Dans la descente, j'ai ramassé une sandale Croc bleue perdue sur le sentier, que j'ai par la suite laissée à l'abri du Petit-Sault. Les chips All-Dressed sont toujours une bénédiction. On a arrêté à la Chute à Hélène, majestueuse du haut de ses 70m, avant de terminer notre journée à l'abri du Ruisseau Bascon.
Jour 12: Abri du ruisseau Bascon à la plateforme de camping Le Kalmia - 35 km
Cette journée marque officiellement notre arrivée dans les terrains alpins. Le Mont Matawees et la crête du Mont Fortin sont à couper le souffle, offrant des vues vers les montagnes qui nous attendent dans le Parc de la Gaspésie. Arrivés à la pancarte marquant la frontière entre la Réserve et le Parc, nous avons officiellement laissé la section la plus difficile du sentier derrière nous. La montée du Mont Logan se fait bien. Il y a un détour de 200m pour accéder à un point d'eau qui jaillit de la montagne directement. Au sommet du Mt Logan, il y a une bâtisse et des antennes pour s'abriter du vent. La vue est impressionnante et le réseau cellulaire y était disponible. À partir du Mt Logan, la descente se fait dans un chemin d'accès rocailleux assez large. Les plateformes sont situées près de lacs, et les moustiques y étaient nombreux à ce temps-ci de l'année, mais cela n'a rien enlevé à notre plus belle journée sur le sentier à date.
Jour 13: Plateforme de camping Le Kalmia à plateforme de camping Le Saule - 14 km
Petite journée pour récupérer de la Réserve faunique de Matane et de notre grosse journée précédente. Couchés de bonne heure, en prévision du lever de soleil au Pic de l'Aube le lendemain.
Jour 14: Plateforme de camping Le Saule à plateforme de camping La Fougère - 25 km
Une belle journée qui a commencé à 3h30 pour revenir sur nos pas un peu et aller voir le lever de soleil au Pic de l'Aube, une expérience que je suggère fortement! On y a déjeuné et au moment où les premiers rayons commençaient à percer, les nuages ont commencé à s'installer, menaçant de nous gâcher la vue. Heureusement pour nous, ils ont plutôt fait un beau mélange avec les rayons, on se seraient crus dans une peinture! C'était notre meilleur journée à ce jour. On s'est par la suite rendus au camping du Lac Cascapédia, où on a pu prendre une douche et acheter des barres de chocolats/crème glacée/barres tendres et Stu y a récupéré son ravitaillement des gens du SIA. Après une bonne pause, on s'est rendus à La Fougère en passant par le Mont Ells et le Mont du Milieu.
Jour 15: Plateforme de camping La Fougère à plateforme de camping La Camarine - 31 km
Au lever de soleil, nous étions sur le sentier et amorcions notre ascension vers le plateau du Mont Albert. Le changement de décor y est drastique: on est passés d'une forêt dense et humide à une taïga/toundra alpine recouverte de roches rougeâtres en quelques minutes seulement. Ce n'était pas sans rappeler les décors des bandes dessinées de Lucky Luke. Il y avait encore de la neige à quelques endroits au sommet, c'était rafraîchissant. En même temps, la réflexion du soleil sur la neige m'a presque donnée un coup de soleil sur les jambes, la crème solaire n'est pas du luxe dans cet environnement. Dans notre descente, on a commencé à voir de plus en plus de randonneurs d'une journée et de touristes visiblement mal préparés, sans eau et sans chapeau sous le soleil intense. On s'est rendu au Centre de découverte et de services, où j'avais un colis de ravitaillement (que j'avais posté avant qu'on me dise qu'ils n'acceptaient plus les colis de randonneurs en raison de la COVID). Je l'ai récupéré sans problème et on y a rechargé nos appareils électroniques en profitant de sandwiches à la crème glacée et du Wifi gratuit. Par la suite, on a continué vers le Lac aux Américains et vers 17h, on a entamé notre ascension, pour finalement atteindre le sommet, complètement seuls! On a profité de ce luxe pour souper au sommet et y regarder le coucher de soleil. Nous avons par la suite dormi à La Camarine. Pour la troisième fois en 4 jours, c'était maintenant notre meilleure journée sur le sentier. Commencez-vous à remarquer un pattern dans le Parc de la Gaspésie? ;)
Jour 16: Plateforme de camping La Camarine au Refuge Le Cabouron - 29 km
On a entamé l'ascension vers le Mont Jacques-Cartier, traversé une portion enneigée du sentier et commencé la montée du champs de roches. Par chance, on a pu observers 4 caribous qui étaient devant nous, au sommet de la montagne et qui broutaient du lichen. Selon le dernier recensement, il y aurait maintenant moins de 75 individus au sud du Saint-Laurent. Pendant une trentaine de minutes, on est restés immobiles, puis ils sont partis. Au sommet, on a profité du temps dégagé pour admirer la vue tout autour. Puis, nous avons descendu jusqu'au camping du Mont Jacques-Cartier, où on a pris une douche à nouveau, du repos, et des sandwiches à la crème glacée. C'était encore une fois, vous l'aurez deviné, notre plus belle journée sur le sentier. Quelques kilomètres avant le Refuge Le Cabouron, on a croisé un ruisseau à fort débit qui avait visiblement emporté le pont qui y était précédemment. Au refuge, on a rencontré une autre randonneur qui n'avait qu'une seule botte. En traversant le ruisseau précédent avec ses bottes dans les mains, il en avait échappé une qui est partie en flottant à tout jamais. Il a donc enfilé 7 bas et continué à marcher, et a reçu le surnom de 7-Bas. Il a éventuellement atteint Mont-Saint-Pierre ainsi, où sa mère lui a donné une nouvelle paire de souliers. J'en ris encore!
Jour 17: Refuge Le Cabouron au camping privé Parc et Mer - 34 km
Cela faisait plusieurs jours que je communiquais avec une randonneuse devant nous qui faisait Amqui à Cap-Gaspé. Elle avait récemment terminé et nous a surpris en nous attendant à une intersection du sentier. Il était 10h le matin et nous offrait du café ou de la bière. On a évidemment pris une bière et accepté son offre de nous sauver la portion de route restante. On est arrivés au camping Parc et Mer, offrant une vue magnifique mais des sites exposés au vent fort. Ma Duomid était solide, même avec seulement 5 piquets. D'autres tentes autour n'ont pas très bien performé, et certaines ont eu des bris en raison des vents forts. 7- Bas nous a rejoint peu de temps après, et tous les trois sommes allés à la cantine La Seigneurie où j'ai mangé la meilleure poutine de ma vie. Frites, sauce brune, fromage en grains avec oignons caramélisés, poivrons grillés et morceaux de pepperoni, accompagnés de crevette panées, d'une bière de microbrasserie locale et en bonne compagnie, c'était la totale! Pour l'expérience humaine cette journée-là, c'était encore une fois ma journée préférée.
Jour 18: Camping Parc et Mer au Motel de Madeleine Centre - environ 40 km
De la pluie incessante. Plusieurs kilomètres de 132. Dur pour le moral, et pas grand chose d'excitant sur le sentier par cette température. On a donc choisi de se rendre jusqu'à Madeleine Centre et de partager une chambre de motel. Le personnel était très cool et on nous a offert de mettre nos vêtements à la sécheuse, gratuitement. On a pris nos douches, mangé et on s'est couchés tôt.
Jour 19: Motel de Madeleine Centre à Grande-Vallée - 30 km
Le déjeuner au motel était copieux et on avait de la belle météo. On a progressé rapidement et rencontré plusieurs gens de la place, qui étaient curieux, intéressés et généreux. Les gens représentent vraiment la richesse de la Haute-Gaspésie et de la Côte de Gaspé, à mon avis. Tout juste avant Grande-Vallée, il y a un promontoire sur le côté de la 132 qui offre une vue imprenable sur le village. Grande-Vallée est plus développé que les autres villages croisés à date, et leur épicerie offre une bonne sélection pour un ravitaillement. J'ai évidemment acheté trop de nourriture. J'ai croisé un jeune couple en cyclotourisme qui faisait le tour de la 132 en vélo. Ils avaient complété la section de la Réserve faunique de Matane du SIA l'année d'avant, et une des deux m'a partagé avoir perdu une CROC BLEUE dans la descente du Mont Nicol-Albert. On a bien ri quand je lui ai dit l'avoir trouvée et remise dans l'abri du Petit-Sault! Finalement, Stu et moi on a été embarqués par la cousine d'un ami qui vit à Grande-Vallée. On a été reçus comme des rois avec un bon BBQ et beaucoup de plaisir.
Jour 20: Grande-Vallée au Refuge Cascades - 28 km
Les sections de sentier sur les plages de galets sont belles, mais vraiment dures sur les pieds. C'est difficile de garder un bon rythme sur ces portions de 5-6 km. Il faut aussi s'assurer de les franchir lorsque la marée n'est pas haute, pour éviter d'être coincé entre la mer et une falaise, mais je ne crois pas que ce problème soit très fréquent, à moins d'être là lorsque les marées sont plus hautes qu'en temps normal. La brise et la vue sont superbes par contre! Le reste du sentier jusqu'au refuge était un mix de sentiers de VTT et de chemins d'accès d'éoliennes. MAIS, il y avait ce qui semblait être des quantités infinies de fraises de champs le long de ces sentiers, on en a profité. Le Refuge Cascades est moins bien que les autres et semble fréquenté par des gens locaux qui n'ont pas les mêmes valeurs que la plupart des randonneurs. Il y avait plusieurs verres de bière jetés par terre, des déchets laissés sur place et des souris à l'intérieur.
Jour 21: Refuge Cascades au Camping des Appalaches sur la route 197 - Environ 60 km
Rendus à Saint-Yvon, on a retrouvé la plage et ses galets. Les formations rocheuses le long de cette portion du sentier étaient fascinantes! Malheureusement pour Stu, ça commençait à en faire pas mal pour sa cheville fragilisée. Au Grand-Étang, après 15km en 6h, on a décidé de se rejoindre au Camping des Appalaches, à deux jours de marches. Stu est parti en faisant du pouce et j'ai continué le long de la 132. J'étais maintenant au meilleur de ma forme, et je souhaitais pousser mes limites et voir jusqu'où mes jambes pourraient m'amener avec le temps restant de la journée. Au cours des 8h suivantes, j'ai atteint Pointe-à-la-Renommée, le Refuge du Zéphyr (probablement le plus beau de tout le sentier), L'Anse-à-Valleau. Cela faisait quelques kilomètres que je courrais dans les descentes et je progressais rapidement. Au marqueur du kilomètre 68, j'ai décidé de prendre un chemin alternatif au SIA dans le but de rester sur un chemin dégagé pour pouvoir y courir. J'ai suivi un chemin forestier parallèle au sentier jusqu'au kilomètre 60. J'ai par la suite atteint le Refuge de l'Érablière aux alentours de 19h20, ce qui me laissait un peu plus d'une heure de clarté encore. J'ai pris quelques minutes de repos pour manger, remplir mon eau et je suis reparti à la course sur le sentier. J'ai atteint le km 47 un peu avant 21h, marquant un nouveau record personnel de distance en une journée. Stu était déjà au camping, et m'a accueilli avec grande surprise et une demie-bouteille de vin. J'ai mangé, bu et me suis étiré consciencieusement, avant de monter ma tente et de m'endormir comme une roche. Le camping est cher pour ce que c'est, à 30$ la nuit pour un carré de gazon et une table à pique-nique. La buanderie et les douches sont payantes, mais appréciées. Ils n'étaient pas les plus «hiker friendly».
Jour 22: Camping des Appalaches à Abri Des Lacs - 15 km
Stu et moi avions planifié un zéro ici, mais en début d'après-midi, on avait déjà pris notre douche et fait notre lessive, et on s'ennuyait royalement. On est donc reparti sur le sentier et on est entrés dans Forillon après environ 2km sur le 197. Au camping, on nous a dit que le sentier serait abrupt et difficile. Ouais, ça c'était sans compter les jambes qu'on s'est faites dans les derniers 600+ km! Le sentier était en fait impeccable! Large et bien entretenu, il serait possible de courir aisément toute la section de Forillon, à mon avis. L'abri des Lacs a trois murs, et la porte orientée vers le lac. En l'absence de toile pour fermer la porte, j'ai installé ma bâche de manière à nous bloquer le vent et la pluie qui pénétrait l'abri. Il y a sur place une boîte anti-ours, pour les ours noirs qui sont apparemment problématiques à Forillon. On a pas vu l'ombre d'un ours de tout notre parcours, en fait.
Jour 23: Abri Des Lacs jusqu'au Bout du Monde - 33 km + 7 km
Dernière journée! Plus on s'approchait des campings de Forillon, plus il y avait de touristes. Le sentier était toujours exceptionnellement entretenu, ce qui nous a permis d'atteindre le Bout du Monde vers 14h. Il y a un monument et des panneaux interprétatifs qui expliquent ce qu'est le SIA au km 0. Il y avait des touristes qui se demandaient à voix haute comment est-ce que quelqu'un pourrait ou voudrait bien parcourir tout ce chemin, et on était bien heureux de répondre à leurs questions!
J'étais soulagé et fier d'avoir complété le SIA, mais une partie de moi en demandait encore plus. Je serais intéressé à m'essayer pour un FKT (record de vitesse) auto-supporté du SIA QC l'été prochain, s'il n'est pas déjà pulvérisé cette année.
Sur les 7km de chemin pour retourner au stationnement le plus près, j'ai demandé aux deux premières personnes qu'on a croisées si elles se rendaient à Gaspé, et si elles voudraient bien nous y emmener. Coup de chance, elles ont accepté! On a été déposés tout près du Motel Adams, qui fait également office de terminus d'autobus pour les Orléans Express. On a célébré avec une pizza, une bonne bière et sommes rentrés à la maison par autobus le lendemain.

Équipement: Lighterpack

Voilà! Si vous avez une question en lien avec cette rando, n'hésitez pas :)
Au plaisir!
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2020.08.02 21:52 blossombutterfly FYI- Elders letters

Announcements and Reminders May 2020 FOR THE ATTENTION OF ALL ELDERS 1. Arrangements for Viewing the 2020 Convention: The dates that the convention ses- sions will be posted on JW Broadcasting are listed below. Please note that it may take an additional three days for the files to appear in JW Library. • July 6, 2020—Friday morning • July 15, 2020—Friday afternoon • July 23, 2020—Saturday morning • August 3, 2020—Saturday afternoon • August 13, 2020—Sunday morning • August 24, 2020—Sunday afternoon 2. The body of elders should determine which of the following options for viewing the pro- gram will be used: (1) The congregation views the sessions together at the Kingdom Hall on the respec- tive weekends. This option may be chosen only if the congregation has been ap- proved by the branch office to resume holding meetings at the Kingdom Hall by the time the program becomes available. Local public talks would not be scheduled on these weekends. A Watchtower summary is not included in the recorded convention program. Therefore, an abbreviated Watchtower Study (no reading of the para- graphs) should be scheduled during the affected weeks using one of the following options: • Hold the abbreviated Watchtower Study immediately before the congregation views the recorded convention session. • Hold the abbreviated Watchtower Study in place of the Congregation Bible Study during the midweek meeting. Families and individuals can consider the Congre- gation Bible Study material as part of their family worship. (2) Publishers view the sessions on their own at their convenience using JW Broad- casting, just as they are accustomed to for the monthly program. Midweek and weekend meetings would be held as normal. 3. Baptism in Connection With the 2020 Convention: If the branch office has directed that baptisms can be resumed by the time of the convention, please make appropriate ar- rangements for any candidate(s) in your congregation who has been approved for baptism to be immersed locally. This should happen as soon as possible after the Saturday morn- ing session is viewed, in accord with local circumstances. At the baptism, a local elder should ask the baptism candidate(s) the two questions appearing on page 206 of the Or- ganized book and give him an opportunity to answer in the affirmative. The elder will then offer a prayer. Thereafter, the candidate(s) should be immersed. (sfl chap. 11 pars. 16-17) Please remember to report the number baptized to your circuit overseer. He will compile the number of baptisms in the circuit and send his report to the branch office. 4. 2020 Convention Invitation Campaign: The arrangements for the convention invita- tion campaign may be reviewed with the congregation throughout the months of July and August as needed. The body of elders may decide how to adjust the preconvention local needs part described in the Shepherd book, chapter 20, paragraph 17. 5. Disfellowshipped or Disassociated Persons Joining Meetings by Videoconfer- ence: When holding congregation meetings by means of videoconferencing tools, such as S-147-20.05-E Bi
Zoom, use good judgment in determining whether to permit a disfellowshipped or disasso- ciated person to connect to the meetings. If needed, the elders should remind him of when it would be appropriate to join and to leave such meetings. 6. Judicial Matters: Videoconferencing should not be used for handling judicial matters, including reinstatement hearings. Until circumstances permit the hearing to be held at the Kingdom Hall, the matter may need to be held in abeyance. (sfl chap. 15 par. 8) If the body of elders believes that a judicial matter is urgent and needs to be handled immediately, two elders should contact the Service Department for direction. 7. Disaster Preparedness Reminders: This is to remind elders of communication proce- dures in case of disaster. Once field service group overseers have reported to the coordi- nator of the body of elders, the coordinator should contact the circuit overseer, who in turn will email the Disaster Relief Desk ([email protected]) at the branch office. (sfl chap. 26 pars. 7-8) If the situation is urgent and the coordinator is unable to contact the circuit overseer, he should contact the branch office directly. (The after-hours emergency telephone number is in the Shepherd Addendum.) During the item “Are You Prepared?” at the midweek meeting for the week commencing May 4, 2020, please encourage publish- ers willing to assist with disaster relief to submit a Local Design/Construction Volunteer Application (DC-50) form online, if they have not done so already. 8. Medical Matters During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Currently there is no ideal way to complete Advance Decision (dpa) documents. (sfl chap. 11 par. 1 point 1) In cases involv- ing pregnancy and elective surgery, the patient should ensure their refusal of blood is clearly noted on their hospital consent forms. Publishers carrying a completed Advance Decision document, even if this is older than four years, are doing all they can to avoid transfusion in an emergency. If you learn that a publisher is to be hospitalized, please re- mind them to take their mobile phone and charger. Shepherding care, including HLC sup- port, depends on their remaining contactable. FOR FOLLOW-THROUGH BY THE COORDINATOR OF THE BODY OF ELDERS 1. Announcements for the Congregation: Ensure that the announcements for the con- gregation are read at the next midweek meeting. 2. Arrangements for Viewing the 2020 Convention: In order to build anticipation for the convention program, ensure that the congregation is informed of the arrangements for viewing the program once the body of elders finalizes these arrangements. The congrega- tion will need to be reminded periodically of the dates that the various convention sessions will be available for viewing. FOR FOLLOW-THROUGH BY THE SERVICE OVERSEER 1. Annual Items: Each congregation should enter its own request for annual items for 2021 no later than Saturday, August 1, 2020. The quantity requested from the branch of- fice should reflect the actual quantity requested by publishers. 2. Worldwide Campaign in November 2020: As indicated in the announcement for the congregation, more information about distributing The Watchtower No. 2 2020 to govern- ment officials and businesses in the congregation’s territory will be provided later. 3. The poster for the cover series of The Watchtower No. 2 2020 should be used at all public witnessing locations (including special metropolitan public witnessing locations) dur- ing the campaign. The poster is available for download in PDF format. If your congregation S-147-20.05-E Bi
uses magnetic boards on your literature carts and you need a magnetic-compatible poster for this issue, you may submit a periodical special request by Friday, May 15, 2020. The Watchtower No. 2 2020 should be the principal publication featured at public witnessing locations. However, the Teach Us book may also be displayed. Other literature may be kept on hand for use as appropriate. 4. When determining the number of additional copies of The Watchtower No. 2 2020 needed for the campaign, each congregation should consider its arrangements for public witnessing, the anticipated increase in auxiliary pioneers, and so forth. Once a quantity is determined, inform the language-coordinating congregation who, in turn, will submit a spe- cial request on behalf of the language group. Special requests should be submitted by Fri- day, June 5, 2020. S-147-20.05-E Bi
Announcements and Reminders May 2020 FOR THE CONGREGATION 1. Annual Items: Annual items for 2021 will be made available for download beginning in October of this year. Publishers who require hard copy editions may now request the fol- lowing items: 2020 Watchtower and Awake! bound volume, Examining the Scriptures Dai- ly—2021, and the Watch Tower Publications Index 2001-2020. Additionally, requests may be submitted for braille editions of Examining the Scriptures Daily. 2. Bethel Service: Baptized Christians 19 years of age or older who desire to pursue Bethel service or assist with theocratic construction projects on a part-time or full-time ba- sis should view the videos Making Yourself Available for Bethel Service and Be Honest in All Things (Bethel/Construction Application) before submitting an application to the elders. 3. Worldwide Campaign in November 2020: The cover series for The Watchtower No. 2 2020 is “What Is God’s Kingdom?” Although this issue is now available for use in the min- istry, in November 2020 it will be featured in a worldwide campaign to focus attention on God’s Kingdom. Publishers will be encouraged to share one scripture about God’s King- dom with as many people as possible and to place a copy of the magazine with all inter- ested persons. Thus, there will be no arrangement to leave a copy at not-at-homes during the campaign. A special arrangement will also be made to deliver this magazine to gov- ernment officials and businesses in the congregation’s territory. More information on that aspect will be provided to the elders later. Publishers who decide to serve as auxiliary pio- neers during November 2020 will have the option of choosing the 30-hour or 50-hour re- quirement. 4. 2020 Convention Invitation Campaign: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the conven- tion invitation campaign is being modified. Rather than distributing printed invitations to the public as in previous years, publishers may send a copy of the electronic invitation from or JW Library to family, friends, and interested ones. Use the Share feature to send a link to the invitation on (Go to ABOUT US > CONVENTIONS.) In JW Library, use the Share Link feature. (Go to PUBLICATIONS > TRACTS.) Since arrangements for view- ing the convention program will vary, publishers can simply encourage interested ones to view the program on 5. As previously announced, the six sessions of the 2020 “Always Rejoice”! convention program will be released incrementally on JW Broadcasting during the months of July and August. It is likely that most brothers and sisters will enjoy the program in private homes as families or as individuals. Depending on local circumstances, some congregations may be able to meet together to watch the sessions. In due time, more specific direction will be announced to the congregation. TO BE READ ONLY TO BRITISH SIGN LANGUAGE GROUPS AND CONGREGA- TIONS: 6. Congregation Bible Study: Beginning the week of September 28, 2020, The Secret of Family Happiness will be considered at the Congregation Bible Study. S-147-20.05-E Bi
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2020.07.29 17:50 canadianD A House Divided: An overview of my headcanon's 1932 Election

Welcome back everyone! Here we have my overview for the 1932 Presidential Election. Be ready, this one's a doozy of a post. If this is your first time here, welcome, and if you've been following these for a while--welcome back.
Need a refresher before the 1932 overview? Catch up below:
Unstable Ground
Hoover had managed to make it through the 1930 Midterms with a comfortable majority in both houses of Congress. His agricultural protectionism appealed to many a conservative Republican and Democrat, while his dovish, isolationist foreign policy served to reassure a nation watching events across the Atlantic and Pacific fearfully. “The oceans are our walls and Hooverite protectionism will be our gates” wrote one pro-Hoover newspaper in the autumn of 1931.
Despite this, the optimism that Hoover had ridden into the White House in 1928 was quickly fading. Hoover staked his presidency and the revival of the flailing US economy on agrarianism, a series of droughts were beginning to appear out west. The devastation in Europe brought on by the Great War, Russian Civil War, and subsequent Syndicalist revolutions had driven agricultural prices up and encouraged more farmers to cultivate the land. Their drive to cultivate and increase production, as well as certain contemporary farming practices, harmed the topsoil depriving it of organic nutrients and surface vegetation. Strong winds out west were beginning to pick up the loose, dry topsoil left in the wake of farming. These winds turned into large dust storms that began to consume entire farms. Soon, they would begin to consume entire families and even reach the industrial cities of the east. Slowly, small family farms and farming cooperatives that had been the focus of Hoover’s hands-off agrarian policies were losing land and crops to poor topsoil--that same poor topsoil that was now being carried across the plains. Sprawling farms that had covered acres of plains were now reduced bit by bit or all at once, drastically decreasing production and driving up the prices of goods.
Much as he had hoped that business leaders would maintain wages to combat the crash of 25, President Hoover pleaded with farming boards, rural chamber of commerces, and representatives from farming organizations to maintain crop prices as they had been in 1929. But without relief, farmers faced no choice but to raise their prices. Most farmers could barely afford the clothes on their back with this setback, let alone pay off their now defaulted (and continually defaulting) loans for mechanized farm equipment that they couldn’t use. Those states that had established relief programs quickly exhausted their coffers and found little help from the federal government and a laissez-faire president who’d slashed any monetary relief and put policies in place to reduce the federal government’s intervention.
In response to this, farmers and workers all over the plains states were forced to leave their homes with their families in tow, heading for urban states. Factories were inundated with hungry farmers looking for any job on the line. They fared little better here as farmers competed with industrial workers who were desperate to maintain the jobs they’d kept since 1925. Hoover was paralyzed in office and many Republicans in Congress began to turn on him, begging for help for their beleaguered constituents. Even hard-money conservatives began to break from Hoover, though this was much slower. Hoover’s rivals in the Democratic Party, still licking their wounds from the catastrophic defeat in ‘28, saw this as their chance to return to power. Upstart parties like the Socialist Party and Progressives decried this as shameful. William Z. Foster called for the nationalizing of all farms and immediate relief to come from the nationalization of all companies. The Progressives, now little more than prairie populists, saw the devastation first hand and advocated for nationalizing agricultural infrastructure and for an expanded relief program paid for by protectionist tariffs and higher wealth taxes.
The Coming Dust Storm
As 1932 rolled around, most Republicans and President Hoover believed that much like the economic woes caused by the crash, this “Dust Storm” would pass. As the Republicans rallied around the “status quo”, the Democratic Party was preparing for war.
Al Smith, a leading opponent of William G. McAdoo and former Secr. of Commerce, set himself as the frontrunner and built a campaign that sought to “bury the hatchet between labor and commerce and help the American people out the best way we can”. His warm, magnanimous personality was a welcome change of pace from the cold and highbrow attitude of Herbert Hoover. As leader of the Northern Democratic faction, he was a liberal and modern candidate, opposing segregation (he had spearheaded anti-segregation efforts as Governor of New York) and supporting modernized utilities for people. With a foot in both the Wilsonian camp and the classical liberal camp of vaunted New York Democrat Grover Cleveland, many party bosses felt that Smith was the Democrats only real hope to beat Hoover and turn the nation around. The farming crisis and the continual failures of the Hoover Administration gave the campaign plenty of ammunition in the 1932 election. Despite this, a host of favorite son candidates emerged in the tradition of American elections. Most dropped out due to lack of funding or recognition, with only Cordell Hull remaining a token presence in the primary until the convention. All those that dropped out quickly endorsed Smith and began campaigning for him and down-ballot Democrats in key Republican districts. For a time, it looked like Representative Hull would be the only opposition to Smith and the only Southern Democrat in the race. Hull was a tepid oppositionist who never outwardly attacked Al Smith. Many party bosses felt Hull would be an effective VP candidate for Smith following the Democratic Convention. Soon enough, Al Smith’s campaign was emboldened by this early unity and at the prospect of running virtually unopposed for the nomination. Political leaders, pundits, and common folks alike all believed this would make Smith’s road to the White House. That was until a muggy July day in Louisiana...
The Kingfish
Late one July day, Governor Huey Long of Louisiana stood on the back of a truck and announced to a crowd gathered outside the Louisiana State House his campaign the Democratic Nomination. His speech was simultaneously broadcast over the radio, spreading his fiery speech to distant corners of Louisiana and even neighboring southern states thanks to his efforts as Governor to electrify and modernize the Louisiana countryside. On the surface he seemed like just another favorite son, trying to rise in state party politics with a national call, but Long very quickly set himself apart. He was a brash young politician with a penchant for playing friends and rivals alike, against each other. In Louisiana politics he’d been a fervent supporter of modernizing the South and electrifying poor neighborhoods--regardless of race. He’d been a thorn in the side of the KKK, breaking with Southern Democratic tradition, and had wielded the Louisiana State Police like a private army, breaking up KKK rallies, shuttering the clubs and meeting halls of the old Bourbon Democrats, and intimidating political opponents.
These efforts had brought him hundreds of supporters in Louisiana but his populism and overly vague policies turned off serious politicians from the north and south. Al Smith, a champion of “good relations” between workers and the wealthy, decried Long’s rabid anti-labor policies and his proposed “Wealth Tax” as Syndicalism, declaring that “Mr. Long of Louisiana isn’t fit for national office”. Long was merely the symptom of a new faction forming within the Democratic Party that was coming to a head in the 1932 election. Among Long’s populist policies was opposition to the struggling US remaining on the gold standard. Opposition to gold backed currency in the Democratic Party dates to the late 19th century and the legendary William J. Bryan, but it was the collapse of the economy in 1925 that brought renewed attention to the debate. Many countries, even neutral ones, had given up the gold standard following the Great War. France and Britain had been forced to due to losing a significant chunk of their gold reserve when both governments fled to their respective colonies. Despite the global turn away from gold-backed currencies, Hoover flatly refused to consider any anti-gold policies in 1928. Even Al Smith, who loathed Hoover, also refused to campaign against the gold standard in 1932. Long and his cadre of Southern populists held that the gold standard was a symbol of a bygone time and invoked shadowy cabals of businessmen who used their private gold reserves to control the US economy. Most serious politicians, north and south, scoffed at this idea but the crowds that lined Long’s primary campaign trail believed wholeheartedly in this conspiracy.
On the surface it seemed that the ghost of the 1896 Democratic primary had appeared--but this wasn’t a party division based solely on currency. It was north vs south, rural vs urban, main street vs Park Avenue. Long’s charismatic speeches and no-nonsense, populist appeal spread out from the Deep South states of Louisiana and captured ears across the suffering south, reaching as far as Texas, Missouri, and Virginia. He called for sweeping modernization, welfare programs to aid the out of work, the poor, and the old. Smith was at first amused with the young southern politician, for his antics at the podium. Long was known to almost sweat through his suits during his fiery speeches in the muggy southern heat. But his campaign picked up speed across the south, helped by Long’s supporters fighting against the traditional Bourbon Democratic machines that had kept poor whites politically equal to poor blacks. As reports of Long’s “militias” appearing to do battle with police spread, Smith painted Long as a dangerous radical and called him “anti-American” and “the most dangerous man in the country besides Jack Reed”. Reed on the other hand, who was campaigning for the newly re-energized and independent Socialist Party, called Long an authoritarian despot and privately said that “Governor Long is more suited to the presidency of a banana republic than a country such as ours”. It would be the one thing Smith and Reed would agree on.
Already the Democratic Primary was heating up as Smith and Long criss-crossed the country giving speeches and attracting supporters. Both men utilized radio to their advantage, relying on their respective distinct accents (Long with his southern drawl and Smith’s deep New York accent) and charisma to draw listeners. These two titanic leaders attracted so much attention that other favorite son challengers like Gilbert Hitchcock, Cordell Hull, Thomas Walsh, and Walter F. George were all forgotten. All four of them quickly threw their support behind Smith, angering Long and his supporters. Long accused Smith and fellow primary contenders of being part of a “secret pact” to force him from the race. The race began to narrow down to Smith and Long, the two dominant factions of the Democratic Party--Northern Democrats and Populist Democrats. The Northern Democrats considered themselves the heirs of Woodrow Wilson and Grover Cleveland (William McAdoo was conveniently ignored) and promised real, honest progressive politics from the Democratic Party (hoping to shed the connection to the Confederacy). They rallied around Al Smith’s platform of business-friendly relief, modernization of utilities, expanding work programs with contracts for water and power companies, and agricultural-business cooperation, whereby business and farmers could work together towards relief of agriculture.
The opposite of this was Huey Long’s faction of populists. Most of them were Long’s personal acolytes, failed populists, hucksters, local union leaders, and colorless southern politicians who’d championed the poor whites in an area dominated by the post-Civil War Bourbon Democrats. They rejected “Wall Street Money Men and Planter Aristocracy” that had divided the south for their own gain. Long and his supporters called for nationalizing phone lines, agricultural stores (stealing a page from the Progressive Party), and utilities as well as wide ranging taxes on wealth and inheritance (including annual incomes), government-mandated production balances, social insurance, and a wide ranging makework program that would help modernize the countryside. Smith decried this as socialism and once taunted Long to “go peddle your snake oil to Mr. Reed or Senator La Follette, the American voters aren’t buying”. Long meanwhile decried Smith as a tool for robber barons and said “Governor Smith wants to sell this country to Wall Street at the highest bidder--and the cost? The dignity of every man, woman, and child that’s starving”.
As the Democratic Primary continued, the war of words heated up. Eventually brawls between Long supporters and Smith’s turned violent. However, the Bourbon machines were not entirely powerless, and Long found that he had to contend with fellow Southern Democrats in addition to Smith’s aggressive campaigning. This did not signify some alliance between the southern and northern democrats, most Bourbon bosses were growing wary of the increasingly business-friendly focus that their party was taking. But they were turned off by Long’s radicalism as a threat to their power. Above all, most feared that a divided convention would harm their chances in the election. Smith handily won his primaries and entered the convention with enough good will and delegates to emerge as the candidate. This was after engaging with noted Bourbon Democrat and power broker, John Nance Garner. Garner was a voice of calm and reason in such a divided primary and in addition to his own nature, he commanded the delegates from Texas and California, both of which were needed for the convention and for the upcoming election. Garner personally despised Smith, regarding him as a “fast-talking carpetbagger”. He also knew that Smith’s reputation and, notably, his Catholicism would be an issue in the coming campaign. Still, Garner threw his support behind Smith in exchange for promises to be elected Speaker of the House and hoped that Smith would be able to “carry through on the promise his election has made”. Garner believed that a Smith victory in 1932, and perhaps in 1936, would help him be elected in 1940. Stunned and outraged, Long and hundreds of his supporters and delegates staged a march out to little effect. Senator James A. Reed from Missouri was chosen as Smith’s running mate to balance the Democratic ticket with an “upper South” man. On the outsides again, Long considered a third party run but refused and tabled any further decision till after the 1932 election. The hope for the Democratic Party in 1932 seemed shaky but possible and all of this left the Republicans to merely grit their teeth, overwhelmingly renominate Hoover, and hope things didn’t get worse.
As the moderate parties began to arm for a momentous election, the American left was scrambling. The Progressive Party was struggling to build an honest, distinct platform that both attracted voters and defined the party outside of senate party bosses like Burton K. Wheeler. To the left of them, the Socialist Party was still coalescing around Jack Reed and his brand of Marxist-Syndicalism inspired by the revolutions in Paris and London. Norman Thomas, a respected Christian speaker and believer in Democratic Socialism emerged as the natural leader of the moderate wing that had led the SPA out of its electoral alliance with the Progressives and back to independence. Thomas had worked diligently as an organizer for the SPA and Progressives during the 20s and helped to shape and define a more moderate, democratic-style of Marxism in America. Later, after the fall of the SPA and it’s rejoining with the Progressive Party, Norman Thomas’ writings would inspire a new generation of social democrats within the post-war Progressives and the goal of anti-militarism and a true “American Welfare State”. Opposite Thomas was the so-called “Radical Wing” of the SPA. These remained the outliers who hadn’t followed the rest of the SPA into alliance with the Progressives in 1924. Some were former SPA members who’d joined the rump Socialist Labor Party or other minor socialist parties after 1924. Foster advocated for direct action and an immediate revolution on par with the Union of Britain. He also called for wide sweeping nationalization, collectivization, and the immediate seizure of all wealth. The one man who could balance these two was Jack Reed. Reed’s tales of the European revolutions and his charisma endeared him to many within both wings. In addition to this, he’d emerged as an organizational genius in the early 30s thanks to the lessons he learned from a young British functionary named Oswald Mosley. Reed utilized his organizational skills and charisma to whip the still divided SPA into shape. William Foster had become a perennial candidate for the Socialist Labor Party (folded into the SPA following its independence from the Progressives) and encouraged Foster to run as Thomas’ VP. Both men separately, and reluctantly, agreed. Despite the “Socialisty unity ticket” that both men claimed to be running, the two were rarely seen together on the campaign trail.
It was this disparity that hampered the SPA’s efforts in the 1932 election as it soon became apparent that there were three SPA campaigns. The moderate Norman Thomas, who drew crowds of students, inquisitive middle class, and peace activists who advocated for leftist policies, but also feared foreign wars would entangle America and lead to a loss of American independence. Thomas argued that the SPA should become a force for real progressive action at home and stay above “European (read: German) messes” abroad. Thomas’ peaceful, almost reverent, campaign tour was the exact opposite of Foster’s bombastic rallies. These explosive speeches drew countless supporters and detractors, forcing Foster to travel with a band of bodyguards that were rumored to have fought on the frontlines of the Russian Civil War. These street fights led to Foster and his allies organizing unions and attendees into impromptu defense squads. The most popular of all was the one in the middle of these two. Jack Reed’s campaign was part politics, part book promotion, part speaking tour. His eloquent speeches and commanding presence on stage as well as his stories of the destruction of Windsor Castle or Piccadilly Circus covered in red flags drew countless in-person listeners and even more who followed him on the radio.
The 1932 SPA platform was, by November, all over the place. Thomas called for a series of Wealth Taxes, public ownership of power companies and rail lines, a wide ranging and interventionist government welfare system, and a federally controlled national farm board that could oversee the giving of credit, monetary relief, and planting procedures (though Foster routinely called for the collectivization of farm land), and greater representation of union and farm groups in the state and federal government. Foster echoed some of these but called for the immediate disarmament of the US military (going so far as to declare that he would have the US Navy melted down), the reorganization of Congress (dissolving the Senate and replacing it with a Chamber of Unions), recognizing the Union of Britain, Commune of France, and Socialist Republic of Italy, the nationalization of all water and power companies, roads, railways, and factories as well as seizing all wealth. Reed sought to fuse these two, calling for the nationalization of most industries including mines, certain factories, and all railroads, a national farm board (with more powers devoted to them), immediate disarmament and an international conference on disarmament whereby the Syndicalist powers would be invited.
As the Socialists drew thousands on their unique campaign stops, the Progressives emerged slowly. The self-styled chairman of the Progressive Party, Burton K. Wheeler refused to enter the race and declined any and all attempts by his few supporters to enter. Once again the Progressives feared that this was their last election. In the beginning of the summer, Senator Robert M. La Follette Jr from Wisconsin announced his candidacy for the Progressive Party presidential nominee. He faced no opposition in the primary and did not seek out any comment or endorsement from his fellow Progressive Senator Burton K. Wheeler. Son of Progressive Party founder Fighting Bob La Follette, Robert began a whirlwind tour of the plains states and the Upper West. He received a boost of attention in California and the West Coast where he picked up California State Senator Raymond Haight as his running mate. Robert seemed the total opposite of his father and Burton K. Wheeler. He was young, respected (if not well known) in state and federal politics, and idealistic. He carved a platform that sought to make the Progressive Party a fusion of old style progressivism and new style thoughts inspired by socialism. “It’s time to put our country first--not our parties, our bankers, or our rabble rousers”. The Progressive Party platform was a wide ranging and interesting platform. He called for higher taxes on the wealthy, the creation of a federal insurance program for the out of work and elderly, sponsoring state-owned (but not federally owned) power and water companies, and a massive bailout to relieve, reform, and revitalize American farmers. In addition, he advocated for a national work program designed to bring urban workers from around the country to farms and rural work programs that would employ and train these young workers. Another national program was the government purchase of large rail lines and then merging them into a federally owned “National Transportation Company” that would expand and also employ people to build new rail lines and bridges. Both of these attracted a lot of criticism and only mild support among the Progressives, with many calling it half-baked collectivization. The Progressives continued their long tradition of not running on any foreign policy save demilitarization and isolation. VP Candidate Haight and some within the Progressive Party tried to capture the American disinterest in foreign affairs with a proposed “Protective Immigration Act” that would slow immigration. But despite this, La Follette refused to endorse any nativist policies.
Election Nightmare
Following Long’s defeat at the Democratic National Convention, he retreated to Louisiana where his power base remained and refused to campaign for the Democratic ticket. Down-ballot Southern Democrats were safe and Long began laying the groundwork for “saving America”. Smith continued his whirlwind campaign, seeking the limelight and covering the airwaves with his iconic American voice. As Democratic candidate, he now faced a lot of serious criticism for his business-friendly policies (some people accused him of being little better than Hoover) and others were turned off by anti-Catholic feelings. Hoover remained in Washington, giving only a few radio speeches or penning letters, while relying on personal supporters and Republican party bosses for his campaign. Hoover notably claimed that his administration was looking to “preserve law and order amidst an increasingly radical world”. The Socialists and Progressive remained in their traditional power bases--the mid and upper west for the Progressives and the industrial heartlands of the Midwest. Future historians would say that everything changed that day when America cast their ballot. But anyone paying attention could see that the long and troublesome road to 1936 began further back than the 1932 Election.
After days of counting ballots, no clear winner was found. Despite his refusal to run a third party campaign, Long picked up almost 40 delegates among the south. Following the constitution, the 1932 election was sent to the House to be chosen there. The Democrats had won a majority in the House, though this new House had yet to be sworn in and so the selection still fell to the Republican-dominated House. There was widespread discontent with Herbert Hoover as the Depression showed little sign of weakening. Smith had been barred from coming to Washington by his own allies and was forced to rely on incoming-Speaker of the House John Nance Garner to lead the Democratic negotiations. While Garner hated Hoover and his handling of the crisis, Smith had proven himself a controversial choice. His Catholicism alienated many in an already xenophobic country and, Garner felt, that he’d failed to truly utilize the momentum that his primary had picked up in the national campaign. Vindicated for his own personal dislike of Smith, Garner feared that a reform-minded liberal Democrat would shatter any hope of getting work done before the 1936 election. The 1932 election hadn’t even been called and Garner as well as other party bosses like James Farley feared for the 1934 midterms. 1932 hadn’t been the Democratic wave that Smith’s primary had promised and Garner made the choice to throw his and most of the Democratic members of the House behind reelecting Herbert Hoover, in exchange for a “free hand” from Republican bosses. This secret remained with Garner (only coming to light upon the publication of his diary in 1998) and shattered Governor Al Smith. He publicly blamed the Republican Party and privately attributed blame to John Nance Garner who he believed “Stabbed me in the back”. The two would never speak from that day forward.
Herbert Hoover looked sickly and tired when he took the stage in early 1933 to take the oath of office. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes later remarked that the President looked “like a man on his way to the chair”. The First Lady refused to attend and remained behind in a hotel suite and only a hundred or so people gathered to watch the inauguration and speech. Hoover thanked the American people for trusting in his vision of the country and urged “faith in God and faith in ourselves until happier times are here again”. One of the few supporters in the stands, Quentin Roosevelt, would wire his wife that night and inform her that “after receiving lackluster applause from the crowd, Hoover turned and said something to [Vice President Charles Curtis] Curtis. I don’t know what the President said but his downcast eyes and frown said everything I didn’t hear.” There’s been much debate over “Hoover’s real words” since this came to light. Vice President Curtis passed away soon after leaving office and Hoover refused to answer questions about that until the day he died. One popular theory holds that Hoover offhandedly mentioned “and I owe all this to that bastard Jack Garner”, while another maintains that he said “we haven’t won an election, but a coffin”. Whatever the truth, protests and riots erupted across the nation.
William Z. Foster ranted to supporters in Cleveland that this was “irrefutable proof that democracy and the revolution were completely incompatible”. Long’s supporters also rioted in New Orleans, however this devolved into racial violence before Long appeared on the radio and urged his supporters to “return home and be with your family, there’ll be a time for anger soon enough”. Smith was shaken to his core, having lost the presidency and the governorship, he would retire for some time in Albany before he returned to the private sector. Surprisingly, Quentin Roosevelt, one time Republican foreign policy aide and New York State Representative won a special gubernatorial election following the end of Smith’s term. Roosevelt would thank Smith for his years of service to America and the state of New York and called on everyone to “work together, not as politicians or simply as Americans--as honest folk who love their neighbors and their country as they love their family and their God.”
  • Republican Party - Herbert HooveCharles Curtis
  • Democratic Party - Al Smith/James A. Reed
  • Socialist Party - Norman Thomas/William Z. Foster
  • Progressive Party - Robert M. La Follette Jr./Raymond Haight
Congressional Outcome:
Senate: 96 Seats in Total
  • Republican Party: 66 seats
  • Democratic Party: 25
  • Progressive Party: 3
  • Socialist Party: 2
House: 435 Seats in Total
  • Republican Party: 180 seats
  • Democratic Party: 210 seats
  • Progressive Party: 28
  • Socialist Party: 17
submitted by canadianD to Kaiserreich [link] [comments]

2020.07.17 06:03 Kalavera13 The Fire-Eaters of 2020

There is no singular reason why a faction of Americans won't wear masks to fight SARS-2 Pandemic. With much ado about masks, I was left wondering why it's so controversial in the United States. Many feel wearing a mask is infringing on their freedom. Others feel there is deep state conspiracy or conjure dubious medical reasons not to wear a mask. To contrast, many nations around the world have controlled the virus with mask mandates with little push back from their citizenry. Why so different in the Land of the Free?
To bring up to par, masks are used to mitigate the spread of SARS-2 causing many COVID-19 deaths. The understanding is while masks can help protect the wearer, it is most effective at protecting others from the mask wearer who may be an asymptomatic spreader. The contention is masks don't work. Exploring that further shows that argument isn't substantiated within epidemiology or any other medical field. There is no meat on this bone.
While Trump's reasons to stealthy oppose masks has more to do with his reelection, why would others endanger themselves just to cheer their politician? Trump is making the virus go away by removing it from his line of sight while many suffer and die to the reality of COVID-19. It's not working out as he probably intended. Why would anyone defy a pandemic and put themselves in harm's way? That thought reminded me of something in American history.
During plantation slavery in America, the very few abolitionists were working to end slavery and President-elect Lincoln was an imminent threat to the Antebellum South. Then emerged the Fire-Eaters. John J. Pettus, Governor of Mississippi, lead pro-slavery extremists and it was said they would rather eat fire than sit with an abolitionist, hence the Fire-Eaters. This rigid stance was supported by religious conviction and prosperity through pro-slavery. This lead to the most deadliest war America will see to this date.
Now in 2020, we are living in the most deadliest pandemic of our lifetime and American politics couldn't be more volatile. The rigid stance of the South exists to this day and can be used to partly explain the explosion of the virus in the Sun Belt of America. Conservatives have declared academia, Hollywood, the media, and science to be enemies of conservative thinking. Today's conservatism relies much on tradition, righteousness through Christian faith, and prioritizing the needs (or greed) of Wall Street.
Then the conspiracy unfolded. Medical experts were promoting NPIs to fend off the virus. Academia was warning of an impending pandemic to fall on a Republican President. Hollywood and the media were promoting the use of masks. These happenings caused Republicans to declare them as enemies to their vision of prosperity under a Republican President. Liberal is a four letter word to a conservative. Even more than China or Russia, liberal Americans are by far viewed as the biggest enemy to conservative ideals and America as a whole in the eyes of Republicans.
To a Republican, wearing a mask is an abrasive act to themselves. To a Republican, wearing a mask means abandoning their faith and siding with godless science. To a Republican, wearing a mask means being in solidarity with progressive movements that they feel erases their traditions. To a Republican, wearing a mask means the worst case scenario - surrendering to vile freedom-hating liberals.
The Fire-Eaters are alive and well in 2020. They would rather eat the virus than mask with a liberal.
submitted by Kalavera13 to PoliticalPhilosophy [link] [comments]

2020.07.17 01:35 WinifredLisa IV Classic Words on the Bible

  1. For many years, people’s traditional means of belief (that of Christianity, one of the world’s three major religions) has been to read the Bible; departure from the Bible is not a belief in the Lord, departure from the Bible is heterodoxy and heresy, and even when people read other books, the foundation of these books must be the explanation of the Bible. Which is to say, if you believe in the Lord, then you must read the Bible, and outside the Bible you must not worship any book that does not involve the Bible. If you do, then you are betraying God. From the time when there was the Bible, people’s belief in the Lord has been the belief in the Bible. Instead of saying people believe in the Lord, it is better to say they believe in the Bible; rather than saying they have begun reading the Bible, it is better to say they have begun believing in the Bible; and rather than saying they have returned before the Lord, it would be better to say they have returned before the Bible. In this way, people worship the Bible as if it were God, as if it were their lifeblood, and losing it would be the same as losing their life. People see the Bible as being as high as God, and there are even those who see it as higher than God. If people are without the work of the Holy Spirit, if they cannot feel God, they can carry on living—but as soon as they lose the Bible, or lose the famous chapters and sayings from the Bible, then it is as if they have lost their life. And so, as soon as people believe in the Lord they begin reading the Bible, and memorizing the Bible, and the more of the Bible they are able to memorize, the more this proves that they love the Lord and are of great faith. Those who have read the Bible and can speak of it to others are all good brothers and sisters. For all these years, people’s faith and loyalty to the Lord has been measured according to the extent of their understanding of the Bible. Most people simply do not understand why they should believe in God, nor how to believe in God, and do nothing but search blindly for clues to decipher the chapters of the Bible. People have never pursued the direction of the work of the Holy Spirit; all along, they have done nothing but desperately study and investigate the Bible, and no one has ever found newer work of the Holy Spirit outside of the Bible. No one has ever departed from the Bible, nor have they ever dared to do so. People have studied the Bible for all these years, they have come up with so many explanations, and put in so much work; they also have many differences of opinion about the Bible, which they debate endlessly, such that over two thousand different denominations have been formed today. They all want to find some special explanations, or more profound mysteries in the Bible, they want to explore it, and to find in it the background to Jehovah’s work in Israel, or the background to Jesus’ work in Judea, or more mysteries that no one else knows. People’s approach to the Bible is one of obsession and faith, and no one can be entirely clear about the inside story or substance of the Bible. So, today people still have an indescribable sense of wonder when it comes to the Bible, and they are even more obsessed with it, and have even more faith in it. Today, everyone wants to find the prophecies of the work of the last days in the Bible, they want to discover what work God does during the last days, and what signs there are for the last days. In this way, their worship of the Bible becomes more fervent, and the closer it gets to the last days, the more blind credence they give to the prophecies of the Bible, particularly those about the last days. With such blind faith in the Bible, with such trust in the Bible, they have no desire to seek the work of the Holy Spirit. In people’s notions, they think that only the Bible can bring the work of the Holy Spirit; only in the Bible can they find the footsteps of God; only in the Bible are hidden the mysteries of God’s work; only the Bible—not other books or people—can clarify God’s everything and the entirety of His work; the Bible can bring the work of heaven to earth; and the Bible can both begin and conclude the ages. With these notions, people have no inclination to search for the work of the Holy Spirit. So, regardless of how much of a help the Bible was to people in the past, it has become an obstacle to God’s latest work. Without the Bible, people can search for the footsteps of God elsewhere, yet today, His footsteps have been contained by the Bible, and extending His latest work has become doubly difficult, and an uphill struggle. This is all because of the famous chapters and sayings from the Bible, as well as the various prophecies of the Bible. The Bible has become an idol in people’s minds, it has become a puzzle in their brains, and they are simply incapable of believing that God can work outside of the Bible, they are incapable of believing that people can find God outside of the Bible, much less are they able to believe that God could depart from the Bible during the final work and start anew. This is unthinkable to people; they cannot believe it, and neither can they imagine it. The Bible has become a great obstacle to people’s acceptance of God’s new work, and a difficulty to God’s broadening this new work.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (1)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. What kind of book is the Bible? The Old Testament is the work of God during the Age of Law. The Old Testament of the Bible records all the work of Jehovah during the Age of Law and His work of creation. All of it records the work done by Jehovah, and it ultimately ends the accounts of Jehovah’s work with the Book of Malachi. The Old Testament records two pieces of work done by God: One is the work of creation, and one is the decreeing of the law. Both were the work done by Jehovah. The Age of Law represents the work under the name of Jehovah God; it is the entirety of the work carried out primarily under the name of Jehovah. Thus, the Old Testament records the work of Jehovah, and the New Testament records the work of Jesus, work which was carried out primarily under the name of Jesus. The significance of Jesus’ name and the work He did are mostly recorded in the New Testament. During the Old Testament Age of Law, Jehovah built the temple and the altar in Israel, He guided the life of the Israelites on earth, proving that they were His chosen people, the first group of people that He selected on earth and who were after His own heart, the first group that He had personally led. The twelve tribes of Israel were Jehovah’s first chosen ones, and so He always worked in them, right up until the work of Jehovah of the Age of Law was concluded. The second stage of work was the work of the Age of Grace of the New Testament, and it was carried out among the Jewish people, among one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The scope of this work was smaller because Jesus was God become flesh. Jesus worked only throughout the land of Judea, and only did three-and-a-half years of work; thus, what is recorded in the New Testament is far from able to surpass the amount of work recorded in the Old Testament.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (1)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. The Bible is a book of history. Of course, it also contains some of the foretelling of prophets, and such foretelling is by no means history. The Bible includes several parts—there is not just prophecy, or only the work of Jehovah, nor are there only the Pauline epistles. You must know how many parts the Bible includes; the Old Testament contains Genesis, Exodus…, and there are also the books of prophecy that the prophets wrote. At the end, the Old Testament finishes with the Book of Malachi. It records the work of the Age of Law, which was led by Jehovah; from Genesis to the Book of Malachi, it is a comprehensive record of all the work of the Age of Law. Which is to say, the Old Testament records all that was experienced by the people who were guided by Jehovah in the Age of Law. … The prophets of that time were inspired by Jehovah and spoke some prophecy, they spoke many words, and they prophesied the things of the Age of Grace, as well as the destruction of the world in the last days—the work that Jehovah planned to do. The remaining books all record the work done by Jehovah in Israel. Thus, when you read the Bible, you are mainly reading about what Jehovah did in Israel; the Bible’s Old Testament primarily records Jehovah’s work of guiding Israel, His use of Moses to guide the Israelites out of Egypt, who rid them of the Pharaoh’s shackles, and took them out into the wilderness, after which they entered Canaan and everything following this was their life in Canaan. All apart from this is made up of records of Jehovah’s work throughout Israel. Everything recorded in the Old Testament is Jehovah’s work in Israel, it is the work Jehovah did in the land in which He made Adam and Eve. From when God officially began to lead the people on earth after Noah, all that is recorded in the Old Testament is the work of Israel. And why is there not recorded any work beyond Israel? Because the land of Israel is the cradle of mankind. In the beginning, there were no other countries apart from Israel, and Jehovah did not work in any other place. In this way, what is recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible is purely God’s work in Israel at that time. The words spoken by the prophets, by Isaiah, Daniel, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel … their words foretell His other work on earth, they foretell the work of Jehovah God Himself. All this came from God, it was the work of the Holy Spirit, and apart from these books of the prophets, everything else is a record of people’s experiences of Jehovah’s work at the time.
The work of creation happened before there was mankind, but the Book of Genesis only came after there was mankind; it was a book written by Moses during the Age of Law. It is like the things that happen among you today: After they happen, you write them down to show to people in the future, and for the people of the future, what you have recorded are things that happened in times past—they are nothing more than history. The things recorded in the Old Testament are Jehovah’s work in Israel, and that which is recorded in the New Testament is the work of Jesus during the Age of Grace; they document the work done by God in two different ages. The Old Testament documents the work of God during the Age of Law, and thus the Old Testament is a historical book, while the New Testament is the product of the work of the Age of Grace. When the new work began, the New Testament also became out of date—and thus, the New Testament is also a historical book. Of course, the New Testament is not as systematic as the Old Testament, nor does it record as many things. All of the many words spoken by Jehovah are recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible, whereas only some of the words of Jesus are recorded in the Four Gospels. Of course, Jesus also did a lot of work, but it was not recorded in detail. There is less recorded in the New Testament because of how much work Jesus did; the amount of work He did during three-and-a-half years on earth and the work of the apostles was far less than the work of Jehovah. And thus, there are fewer books in the New Testament than the Old Testament.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (1)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. The Bible is a historical record of God’s work in Israel, and documents many of the foretelling of ancient prophets as well as some of the utterances of Jehovah in His work at that time. Thus, people all look upon this book as holy (for God is holy and great). Of course, this is all a result of their reverence for Jehovah and their adoration for God. People refer to this book in this way only because the creations of God are so revering and adoring of their Creator, and there are even those who call this book a heavenly book. In fact, it is merely a human record. It was not personally named by Jehovah, nor did Jehovah personally guide its creation. In other words, the author of this book is not God, but men. The Holy Bible is only the respectful title given to it by man. This title was not decided by Jehovah and Jesus after They had a discussion amongst each other; it is nothing more than a human idea. For this book was not written by Jehovah, much less by Jesus. Instead, it is the accounts given by many ancient prophets, apostles, and seers, which were compiled by later generations into a book of ancient writings that, to people, seems especially holy, a book that they believe contains many unfathomable and profound mysteries that are waiting to be unlocked by future generations. As such, people are even more disposed to believe that this book is a heavenly book. With the addition of the Four Gospels and the Book of Revelation, people’s attitude toward it is particularly different from any other book, and thus no one dares to dissect this “heavenly book” because it is too “sacred.”
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (4)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. The books of gospel of the New Testament were recorded twenty to thirty years after Jesus was crucified. Before, the people of Israel only read the Old Testament. That is to say, at the beginning of the Age of Grace people read the Old Testament. The New Testament only appeared during the Age of Grace. The New Testament did not exist when Jesus worked; the people after He was resurrected and ascended to heaven recorded His work. Only then were there the Four Gospels, in addition to which were also the epistles of Paul and Peter, as well as the Book of Revelation. More than three hundred years after Jesus ascended to heaven, subsequent generations collated these documents selectively, and only then was there the New Testament of the Bible. Only after this work had been completed was there the New Testament; it did not exist previously. God had done all that work, and Paul and the other apostles had written so many epistles to the churches at various locations. People after them combined their epistles, and appended the greatest vision recorded by John on the island of Patmos, in which was prophesied God’s work of the last days. People made this sequence, which is different from the utterances of today. What is recorded today is according to the steps of God’s work; what people engage with today is the work personally done by God, and the words personally uttered by Him. You—mankind—do not need to interfere; the words, which come directly from the Spirit, have been arranged step by step, and are different from the arrangement of man’s records. What they recorded, it can be said, was according to their level of education and human caliber. What they recorded was the experiences of men, and each had their own means of recording and knowing, and each record was different. Thus, if you worship the Bible as God you are extremely ignorant and stupid! Why do you not seek the work of the God of today? Only the work of God can save man. The Bible cannot save man, people could read it for several thousand years and still there would not be the slightest change in them, and if you worship the Bible you will never gain the work of the Holy Spirit.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (3)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. Many people believe that understanding and being able to interpret the Bible is the same as finding the true way—but in fact, are things really so simple? No one knows the reality of the Bible: that it is nothing more than a historical record of God’s work, and a testament to the previous two stages of God’s work, and that it offers you no understanding of the aims of God’s work. Everyone who has read the Bible knows that it documents the two stages of God’s work during the Age of Law and the Age of Grace. The Old Testament chronicles the history of Israel and Jehovah’s work from the time of creation until the end of the Age of Law. The New Testament records Jesus’ work on earth, which is in the Four Gospels, as well as the work of Paul—are these not historical records? Bringing up the things of the past today makes them history, and no matter how true or real they might be, they are still history—and history cannot address the present, for God does not look back on history! And so, if you only understand the Bible, and understand nothing of the work God intends to do today, and if you believe in God but do not seek the work of the Holy Spirit, then you do not understand what it means to seek God. If you read the Bible in order to study the history of Israel, to research the history of God’s creation of all the heavens and earth, then you do not believe in God. But today, since you believe in God, and pursue life, since you pursue the knowledge of God, and do not pursue dead letters and doctrines or an understanding of history, you must seek God’s will of today, and you must look for the direction of the Holy Spirit’s work. If you were an archeologist you could read the Bible—but you are not, you are one of those who believe in God, and you had best seek God’s will of today.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (4)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. If you wish to see the work of the Age of Law, and to see how the Israelites followed the way of Jehovah, then you must read the Old Testament; if you wish to understand the work of the Age of Grace, then you must read the New Testament. But how do you see the work of the last days? You must accept the leadership of the God of today, and enter into the work of today, for this is the new work, and no one has previously recorded it in the Bible. Today, God has become flesh and selected other chosen ones in China. God works in these people, He continues on from His work on earth, and continues on from the work of the Age of Grace. The work of today is a path that man has never walked, and a way that no one has ever seen. It is work that has never been done before—it is God’s latest work on earth. Thus, work that has never been done before is not history, because now is now, and has yet to become the past. People do not know that God has done greater, newer work on earth, and outside of Israel, that it has already gone beyond the scope of Israel, and beyond the foretelling of the prophets, that it is new and marvelous work outside of the prophecies, and newer work beyond Israel, and work that people can neither perceive nor imagine. How could the Bible contain explicit records of such work? Who could have recorded every single bit of today’s work, without omission, in advance? Who could have recorded this mightier, wiser work that defies convention, in that moldy old book? The work of today is not history, and as such, if you wish to walk the new path of today, then you must depart from the Bible, you must go beyond the books of prophecy or history in the Bible. Only then will you be able to walk the new path properly, and only then will you be able to enter into the new realm and the new work. You must understand why, today, you are asked not to read the Bible, why there is another work that is separate from the Bible, why God does not look for newer, more detailed practice in the Bible, and why there is instead mightier work outside of the Bible. This is all what you should understand. You must know the difference between the old and new work, and even though you do not read the Bible, you must be able to dissect it; if not, you will still worship the Bible, and it will be difficult for you to enter into the new work and undergo new changes. Since there is a higher way, why study that low, outdated way? Since there are newer utterances, and newer work, why live amid old historical records? The new utterances can provide for you, which proves that this is the new work; the old records cannot sate you, or satisfy your current needs, which proves that they are history, and not the work of the here and now. The highest way is the newest work, and with the new work, no matter how high the way of the past, it is still the history of people’s reflections, and no matter its value as reference, it is still the old way. Even though it is recorded in the “holy book,” the old way is history; even though there is no record of it in the “holy book,” the new way is of the here and now. This way can save you, and this way can change you, for this is the work of the Holy Spirit.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (1)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. You must understand the Bible—this work is of the utmost necessity! Today, you need not read the Bible, for there is nothing new in it; it is all old. The Bible is a historical book, and if you had eaten and drunk the Old Testament during the Age of Grace—if you had put into practice what was required in the time of the Old Testament during the Age of Grace—Jesus would have rejected you, and condemned you; if you had applied the Old Testament to the work of Jesus, you would have been a Pharisee. If, today, you put the Old and New Testament together to eat and drink, and practice, then the God of today will condemn you; you will have fallen behind the Holy Spirit’s work of today! If you eat and drink the Old Testament and the New Testament, then you are outside the stream of the Holy Spirit! During the time of Jesus, Jesus led the Jews and all those who followed Him according to the Holy Spirit’s work in Him at the time. He did not take the Bible as the basis of what He did, but spoke according to His work; He paid no heed to what the Bible said, nor did He search in the Bible for a path to lead His followers. Right from when He began to work, He spread the way of repentance—a word of which there was absolutely no mention in the prophecies of the Old Testament. Not only did He not act according to the Bible, but He also led a new path, and did new work. Never did He refer to the Bible when He preached. During the Age of Law, no one had ever been able to perform His miracles of healing the sick and casting out demons. So, too, were His work, His teachings, and the authority and power of His words beyond any man in the Age of Law. Jesus simply did His newer work, and even though many people condemned Him using the Bible—and even used the Old Testament to crucify Him—His work surpassed the Old Testament; if this were not so, why did people nail Him to the cross? Was it not because it said nothing in the Old Testament of His teaching, and His ability to heal the sick and cast out demons? His work was done to lead a new path, it was not to deliberately pick a fight against the Bible, or to deliberately dispense with the Old Testament. He simply came to perform His ministry, to bring the new work to those who yearned for and sought Him. He did not come to explain the Old Testament or uphold its work. His work was not in order to allow the Age of Law to continue developing, for His work gave no consideration to whether it had the Bible as its base; Jesus simply came to do the work that He ought to do. Thus, He did not explain the prophecies of the Old Testament, nor did He work according to the words of the Old Testament Age of Law. He ignored what the Old Testament said, He cared not whether it agreed with His work or not, and cared not what others knew of His work, or how they condemned it. He simply kept doing the work that He ought to do, even though many people used the foretelling of the prophets of the Old Testament to condemn Him. To people, it appeared as if His work had no basis, and there was much of it that was at odds with the records of the Old Testament. Was this not man’s error? Does doctrine need to be applied to the work of God? And must God work according to the foretelling of prophets? After all, which is greater: God or the Bible? Why must God work according to the Bible? Could it be that God has no right to exceed the Bible? Can God not depart from the Bible and do other work? Why did Jesus and His disciples not keep the Sabbath? If He were to keep the Sabbath and practice according to the commandments of the Old Testament, why did Jesus not keep the Sabbath after He came, but instead washed feet, covered head, broke bread, and drank wine? Is this not all absent from the commandments of the Old Testament? If Jesus honored the Old Testament, why did He break with these doctrines? You should know which came first, God or the Bible! Being the Lord of the Sabbath, could He not also be the Lord of the Bible?
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (1)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. Jesus’ utterances and work at the time did not hold to doctrine, and He did not carry out His work according to the work of the law of the Old Testament. It was carried out according to the work that should be done in the Age of Grace. He labored according to the work that He had brought forth, according to His own plan, and according to His ministry; He did not work according to the law of the Old Testament. Nothing that He did was according to the law of the Old Testament, and He did not come to work to fulfill the words of the prophets. Each stage of God’s work was not performed expressly in order to fulfill the predictions of the ancient prophets, and He did not come to abide by doctrine or deliberately realize the predictions of the ancient prophets. Yet His actions did not disrupt the predictions of the ancient prophets, nor did they disturb the work that He had previously done. The salient point of His work was not abiding by any doctrine, and instead doing the work that He Himself should do. He was not a prophet or a seer, but a doer, who actually came to do the work He was supposed to do, and He came to launch His new era and carry out His new work. Of course, when Jesus came to do His work, He also fulfilled many of the words spoken by the ancient prophets in the Old Testament. So too has the work of today fulfilled the predictions of the ancient prophets of the Old Testament. It is just that I do not hold up that “yellowed old almanac,” that is all. For there is more work that I must do, there are more words that I must speak to you, and this work and these words are of far greater importance than explaining passages from the Bible, because work such as that has no great significance or value for you, and cannot help you, or change you. I intend to do new work not for the sake of fulfilling any passage from the Bible. If God only came to earth to fulfill the words of the ancient prophets of the Bible, then who is greater, God incarnate or those ancient prophets? After all, are the prophets in charge of God, or is God in charge of the prophets? How do you explain these words?
Excerpted from “Concerning Appellations and Identity” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. The Jews all read the Old Testament and knew of Isaiah’s prophecy that a male infant would be born in a manger. Why, then, despite being fully aware of this prophecy, did they still persecute Jesus? Was it not because of their rebellious nature and ignorance of the work of the Holy Spirit? At the time, the Pharisees believed the work of Jesus to be different from what they knew of the prophesied male infant, and people today reject God because the work of God incarnate does not conform to the Bible. Is not the essence of their rebelliousness toward God the same? Can you accept, without question, all the work of the Holy Spirit? If it is the work of the Holy Spirit, then it is the right stream, and you should accept it without any misgivings; you should not pick and choose what to accept. If you gain more insights from God and exercise more caution toward Him, then is this not uncalled for? You need not look for further substantiation from the Bible; if it is the work of the Holy Spirit, then you must accept it, for you believe in God to follow God, and you should not investigate Him. You should not seek further evidence of Me to prove that I am your God, but should be able to discern whether I am of benefit to you—this is what is most crucial. Even if you find much irrefutable proof within the Bible, it cannot bring you fully before Me. You merely live within the confines of the Bible, and not before Me; the Bible cannot help you know Me, nor can it deepen your love for Me. Though the Bible prophesied that a male infant would be born, none could fathom upon whom that prophecy would come to pass, for man did not know the work of God, and this is what caused the Pharisees to stand against Jesus. Some know that My work is in man’s interests, yet they continue to believe that Jesus and I are two entirely separate, mutually incompatible beings. At the time, Jesus only gave His disciples a series of sermons in the Age of Grace on such subjects as how to practice, how to gather together, how to supplicate in prayer, how to treat others, and so forth. The work He carried out was that of the Age of Grace, and He expounded only on how the disciples and those who followed Him ought to practice. He only did the work of the Age of Grace, and none of the work of the last days. When Jehovah set down the Old Testament law in the Age of Law, why did He not then do the work of the Age of Grace? Why did He not make clear in advance the work of the Age of Grace? Would this not have helped man to accept it? He only prophesied that a male infant would be born and come to power, but He did not carry out in advance the work of the Age of Grace. The work of God in each age has clear boundaries; He does only the work of the current age, and never carries out the next stage of work in advance. Only thus can His representative work of each age be brought to the fore. Jesus spoke only of the signs of the last days, of how to be patient and how to be saved, of how to repent and confess, and of how to bear the cross and endure suffering; never did He speak of how man in the last days should achieve entry, nor of how he should seek to satisfy God’s will. As such, is it not ridiculous to search the Bible for God’s work of the last days? What can you see by merely clutching the Bible? Be it an expositor of the Bible or a preacher, who could have seen the work of today in advance?
Excerpted from “How Can Man Who Has Delimited God in His Notions Receive the Revelations of God?” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. There are those who even check the work of the present against that of Jesus in the Bible and use any inconsistencies to deny this stage of the work. Is this not the action of the blind? The things that are recorded in the Bible are limited; they cannot represent the work of God in its entirety. The Four Gospels have fewer than one hundred chapters altogether, in which are written a finite number of happenings, such as Jesus cursing the fig tree, Peter’s three denials of the Lord, Jesus appearing to the disciples following His crucifixion and resurrection, teaching about fasting, teaching about prayer, teaching about divorce, the birth and genealogy of Jesus, Jesus’ appointment of the disciples, and so forth. However, man values them as treasures, even comparing the work of today against them. They even believe that all the work Jesus did in His life amounted only to so much, as if God were only capable of doing this much and nothing further. Is this not absurd?
Excerpted from “The Mystery of the Incarnation (1)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh
  1. Today, people believe the Bible is God, and that God is the Bible. So, too, do they believe that all the words of the Bible were the only words God spoke, and that they were all said by God. Those who believe in God even think that, although all of the sixty-six books of the Old and New Testament were written by people, they were all given by inspiration of God, and a record of the utterances of the Holy Spirit. This is the erroneous comprehension of man, and it does not completely accord with the facts. In fact, apart from the books of prophecy, most of the Old Testament is a historical record. Some of the epistles of the New Testament come from people’s experiences, and some come from the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit; the Pauline epistles, for example, arose from the work of a man, they were all the result of the Holy Spirit’s enlightenment, and they were written for the churches, and were words of exhortation and encouragement for the brothers and sisters of the churches. They were not words spoken by the Holy Spirit—Paul could not speak on behalf of the Holy Spirit, and neither was he a prophet, much less did he see the visions that John beheld. His epistles were written for the churches of Ephesus, Philadelphia, Galatia, and other churches. And thus, the Pauline epistles of the New Testament are epistles that Paul wrote for the churches, and not inspirations from the Holy Spirit, nor are they the direct utterances of the Holy Spirit. They are merely words of exhortation, comfort, and encouragement that he wrote for the churches during the course of his work. So, too, are they a record of much of Paul’s work at the time. They were written for all who are brothers and sisters in the Lord, so that the brothers and sisters of the churches at that time would follow his advice and abide by the way of repentance of the Lord Jesus. By no means did Paul say that, be they the churches of that time or of the future, all must eat and drink the things he wrote, nor did he say that his words all came from God. According to the circumstances of the church at that time, he simply communed with the brothers and sisters, and exhorted them, and inspired belief in them, and he simply preached or reminded people and exhorted them. His words were based upon his own burden, and he supported the people through these words. He did the work of an apostle of the churches of that time, he was a worker who was used by the Lord Jesus, and thus he must take on the responsibility for the churches, and must undertake the work of the churches, he had to learn about the states of the brothers and sisters—and because of this, he wrote epistles for all of the brothers and sisters in the Lord. All he said that was edifying and positive to people was right, but it did not represent the utterances of the Holy Spirit, and it could not represent God. It is an egregious understanding, and a tremendous blasphemy, for people to treat the records of a man’s experiences and a man’s epistles as the words spoken by the Holy Spirit to the churches! That is particularly true when it comes to the epistles that Paul wrote for the churches, for his epistles were written for the brothers and sisters based on the circumstances and situation of each church at the time, and were in order to exhort the brothers and sisters in the Lord, so that they could receive the grace of the Lord Jesus. His epistles were in order to rouse the brothers and sisters of that time. It can be said that this was his own burden, and was also the burden given to him by the Holy Spirit; after all, he was an apostle who led the churches of the time, who wrote epistles for the churches and exhorted them—that was his responsibility. His identity was merely that of a working apostle, and he was merely an apostle who was sent by God; he was not a prophet, nor a foreteller. To him, his own work and the lives of the brothers and sisters were of the utmost importance. Thus, he could not speak on behalf of the Holy Spirit. His words were not the words of the Holy Spirit, much less could they be said to be the words of God, for Paul was nothing more than a creature of God, and was certainly not the incarnation of God. His identity was not the same as that of Jesus. The words of Jesus were the words of the Holy Spirit, they were the words of God, for His identity was that of Christ—the Son of God. How could Paul be His equal? If people see the epistles or words like Paul’s as the utterances of the Holy Spirit, and worship them as God, then it can only be said that they are too indiscriminating. To speak more harshly, is this not simply blasphemy? How could a man talk on behalf of God? And how could people bow down before the records of his epistles and of the words he spoke as if they were a holy book, or a heavenly book? Could the words of God be casually uttered by a man? How could a man talk on behalf of God? And so, what say you—could the epistles that he wrote for the churches not be tainted with his own ideas? How could they not be tainted with human ideas? He wrote epistles for the churches based on his personal experiences and his own knowledge. For instance, Paul wrote an epistle to the Galatian churches which contained a certain opinion, and Peter wrote another, which had another view. Which of them came from the Holy Spirit? No one can say for sure. Thus, it can only be said that they both bore a burden for the churches, yet their letters represent their stature, they represent their provision and support for the brothers and sisters, and their burden toward the churches, and they only represent human work—they were not entirely of the Holy Spirit. If you say that his epistles are the words of the Holy Spirit, then you are absurd, and you are committing blasphemy! The Pauline epistles and the other epistles of the New Testament are equivalent to the memoirs of the more recent spiritual figures: They are on a par with the books of Watchman Nee or the experiences of Lawrence, and so on. It is simply that the books of recent spiritual figures are not compiled into the New Testament, yet the substance of these people was the same: They were people who were used by the Holy Spirit during a certain period, and they could not directly represent God.
Excerpted from “Concerning the Bible (3)” in The Word Appears in the Flesh

a. A piece of deadwood: a Chinese idiom, meaning “beyond help.”

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2020.07.12 03:28 altymcalterton My last letter

The time is 1am and I feel like just writing out my current life situation A lil info: My name is Dylan I am 6ft 4 and 105kg(quite unhealthy) I have been dealt the shitty card of schizophrenia, depression, insomnia (all medicated but still a serious battle) and possible BPD but more checks by CAMHS are being done I have 0 irl and one internet friend who barely talks to me and family wise everyone is either dead, abusive or disowned me. I still commonly self harm, have attempted suicide and most of the time just want to disappear.
Now a bit of info on what got me here: My entire life has essentially been a repeating cycle of finally being comfortable, emotionally dropkicked, climb back up to being stable enough to function and then getting body slammed back into the recesses of depression. This cycle still turns today
Up untill I was 5 id spend all my spare time with my nan because she was simply amazing, I still cherish every little trinket of hers I own. One day out of nowhere I get the bomb dropped on me that she died (lost the battle to breast cancer) and for someone reason I'm yet to figure, the entire family thought blaming me would fix everything saying things like how if I'd let her rest more she'd still be here of or if I was never born she wouldn't of got cancer in the first place which as you can imagine fucked me up big time
Then we come to school. Oh boy I spent pretty much every day getting bullied the shit out of. No friends at all, I'm pretty sure even the teachers were cheering when I was getting my teeth kicked in. Despite this id just take because I believed my nan was watching and all I wanted was to make her proud ( she was strict Christian so I made sure to abide as closely as possible). Fortunately I was lucky enough to have the ability to pick up new things quickly so even without putting to much effort into school i managed to keep in the top end of the class. I think it was around yr5/6 when I started to depend more and more on imaginary friends because all the real people hated me and I think it was this dependence on the imaginary that let my psychosis affect me so bad. By the time highschool came I was seeing full blown devils incarnations everywhere I looked however my parents being the responsible and loving people they were said I should stop making things up.
My home life was hell on earth X10, we live in a run down area of England which is notorious for the gang activity here (drugs, stabbings, beatings, you name it) meaning our house itself was already shitty. We combine that with mentally unwell parents and sprinkle a bit of poverty and you create the perfect recipe for someone young to decide that spending times with these gangs was my best choice. By highschool(yr 8+) I'd witnessed some stabbings and beatings but never par took(for now as we'll see later). I mainly either took drugs and dealt them. I've had a few bad run ins with some people but luckily I was never too bad off
Then we get to year 10. This is when the DID started to go fucking sicko mode. I developed alternate personalities because life was just treating me well too harsh for me to handle. The unfortunate side affect of this was the creation of a personality I call "Arthur". The TL:DR is he's a straight up fucking psychopath, like in every sense of the word. He enjoys mentally torturing me whenever he can, he'll never miss an opportunity to get physical with someone but worst of all and the reason for an alt was he has actually killed someone. This isn't a joke This isn't a haha funny, look at me edgy, serial killer UwU This is the truth From what he told me it was he simply just pushed someone over the edge of a bridge (a high one obviously) and the guy either died from the fall or drowning. The death was ruled as suicide. This completely tore me apart. Imagine waking up one day to find out you're a murderer. Do you think could cope? I couldn't. I immediately took as many pill as I could find in the house, I didn't care what they were I just wanted to die. However it didn't work. After that I tried various other things, slit wrists, carbon monoxide even fucking alcohol poisoning but no matter what I just couldn't die So I go on living, a broken shell of a human but hey I'm still alive. Year 11 comes around and I meet this one guy, our personalities click and we instantly become best friends and spend every awake moment talking, playing, studying anything and for once I was actually happy. I couldn't believe that I actually had a friend and I started to look up to see a bright sky again. My grades are becoming As, I'm commonly smiling, I actually have a friend like wtf is this magical shit. Then, everything gets even better. Riding on my new found happiness I decided to finally ask out my first proper crush. She said yes. We went on a date. We hit it off. Bam, just like that I now have friends, a girlfriend and a bright looking future(I even managed to lose my virginity, which I didn't I'd ever do). I apply to my architectural engineering course for college, get told the requirements ect. GCSEs come around. I spend all my time with either my best friend or girlfriend studying. Results day is here and I'm hopeful that I've at least passed everything. Nope, I GOT STRAIGHT FUCKIN As. I literally cried.
College starts, it's not too bad, don't make any friends I just stick with my others. I'm keeping my grades up ect. Now the focal point of when shit hit the fan. My girlfriend moved college because she found a better course. I don't worry because we spend every waking minute with eachother, I know she's loyal and besides we've already planned out our future. I mean, I've even started designing our house in the Canadian woods, we're made for eachother.
I. Was. Wrong.
After a week of her being there she found another guy, admitted I was nothing more than a sex toy to her, accused me of rape, made any friends I had believe her side of the story and the baited me into thinking she did love me, only to shatter what hope I had again.
I was now, mentally fucked and not taking medication, friendless, SOless and trapped in a home with abusive parents. The cycle of self harm and suicide attempts started again but I either failed or pussied out every time Now the whole covid thing is taking over my life and honestly I just don't want to be on this planet anymore.
While I suppose I'm technically not committing suicide, after tonight my plan is to fade into non existence and let one of the other personalities that reside in my brain take over permanently, so this is formal good bye My life was shit at every turn but honestly, I wouldn't change anything and at least now I get to see my nan
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2020.07.10 15:48 Venus230 The Four Stages of the Communist Takeover: Demoralization, Destabilization, Crisis, Normalization The Four Stages of the Communist Takeover: Demoralization, Destabilization, Crisis, Normalization

The journalist and Soviet defector long ago pegged the current left-wing moment.
It’s important to understand that this is a revolutionary moment in American history, and it isn’t a bad idea to act in ways that would fall under the traditional description of “accordingly.”
But it’s also important to understand that the "revolution" taking place in America is not yet a “kinetic” one. That may come soon, or it may not. The battle taking place presently is a war of information — or disinformation, as the case may be.
And the revolution is a Marxist revolution. You should make no mistake about that. The groups fomenting it, the intellectuals promoting it, and the money financing it are all quite open about who they are.
In any other time in American history a presidential candidate would have dumped Duckworth as a potential VP the minute she came out against George Washington.
The object of this information revolution? To begin with, defeating Donald Trump and installing Joe Biden as the Hard Left’s puppet president. Biden is, for now, palatable to the American people in ways that actual communist Bernie Sanders, spawn of a communist Pete Buttigieg, Sandinista sympathizer Bill de Blasio and other far-left revolutionary (remember: Sanders has spent years traipsing around the country calling for a revolution) figures were not. But despite his lack of bona fides, Biden offers something quite beneficial to the Left — he is wholly incapable of executing the duties of President of the United States owing to a clear deficiency of mental function which shows itself every time he makes a public appearance. Couple that with Biden and his handlers being so utterly devoid of principle and scruples that he and they are willing to serve as an empty vessel into which might be poured whatever horrors the Left is willing to use him to bring on.
Joe Biden isn’t Vladimir Lenin. Biden is Alexander Kerensky, the Russian politician who served as the vessel for the revolutionaries to overthrow the old guard in 1917 and then, once he had proven himself useful toward that end, was shuffled aside so the real power could assume control. And as in Kerensky’s case, what comes after will bring the end of all that we know.
They’re not even trying to hide this anymore. Black Lives Matter co-founder Patrice Cullors repeatedly says We are trained Marxists.” Antifa’s imagery, dogma, public statements — all straight from the Marxist playbook. The bleatings of the Democrat Socialist crowd, including AOC, Ilhan Omar, Ayanna Pressley and the rest — unabashedly Marxist. What do you think every one of these “community organizing” outfits catching oversized checks from the Soros'es of the world are teaching to their new recruits? Where do you think critical race theory, repressive tolerance, and intersectionalism, the tools of the cultural revolutionaries setting fire to all our traditions and institutions, came from? They came from the Frankfurt School, all of whom were Marxists.
This playbook was written long ago. If you think that Bernie Sanders or Kshama Sawant or Alicia Garza are smart enough to dream up a plan for taking down the greatest society the world has ever known, you are out of touch with reality. The only way they could have been as effective as they have so far is to follow somebody else’s plan. Which they are doing.
The reason you believe a Marxist revolution on these shores is far-fetched is that your faith in America’s institutions makes you believe the loss of your freedom and prosperity are impossible.
That confidence isn’t a flaw in your character. To the contrary, it’s a sign of your patriotism. But this moment makes that confidence unwarranted, if not obsolete.
Now is where you should be thinking about China’s new social credit scoring system, elements of which are already creeping into our society, and how that might merge with government banking and the elimination of cash.
The frightening promises Biden is making to the Hard Left in this country while he vets anti-American loons like Tammy Duckworth — who openly discusses the defenestration of George Washington and calls Abraham Lincoln and Jackie Robinson “dead traitors” because Trump praised them at Mount Rushmore, then pretends to be insulted when people rightly call that the offensive idiocy that it is — as his vice presidential choices, show that he is the Left’s puppet.
Biden jumped in to defend Duckworth after her insane ranting, in case you missed it; in any other time in American history a presidential candidate would have dumped her as a potential VP the minute she came out against George Washington.
You shouldn’t believe the polls which show Biden with such huge leads. But the reason those polls are delivering the numbers they do should make you concerned.
Those polls are trash, because Trump voters are “shy voters.” If you’re voting for Trump, are you really going to tell a stranger over the phone who you’re voting for? Doing so might put you on a list, get you doxxed, get you fired from your job, beat up, or worse.
Why do you as a Trump voter worry about that? You, and everyone else in America, are being demoralized.
There is a video interview from a long time ago that you should see if you haven’t already seen it. It’s one of those things that many of our readers may have seen years ago and then forgot about — but all of a sudden it’s incredibly relevant again. The interview dates back to 1984, and it was conducted by the author, filmmaker, and John Birch Society gadfly G. Edward Griffin with a Soviet defector and former KGB operative named Yuri Bezmenov.
Forget about Griffin’s background. He was something of an Alex Jones of his time, and he’s still around in his dotage, obsessing about things which cost him his relevance. It’s Bezmenov who matters. The Russian was involved at relatively high levels as a propagandist par excellence before leaving the USSR for Canada, and he laid out in excruciating detail the process by which a free society might be brought to collapse.
Bezmenov didn’t dream that up. It wasn’t even a secret. Nikita Khrushchev, who ran the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1964, was quite open in predicting the destruction of the United States and furthermore said it would happen in the way that every society eventually collapses — internally.
“We will take America without firing a shot,” Khrushchev said. “We do not have to invade the U.S. We will destroy you from within.”
Khrushchev and the Soviets weren’t just bragging. What he was talking about was an entire system of Marxist indoctrination and takeover they had perfected and executed in country after country during the 20th century. Eastern Europe. North Korea. North Vietnam, then all of Vietnam. Cuba. Nicaragua. Later, Venezuela. Various African countries, including South Africa, the communist bloom of which has only recently come to pass. Some of those countries went communist because the Soviets rolled the tanks in; most went communist because the pre-communist society collapsed for various reasons. All went communist after they had been infiltrated with Marxist revolutionaries.
The point being that there was a template in place for how to penetrate a society with Marxist ideals and implode it so that the revolutionaries would control the ruins. Bezmenov, whose father was a high-ranking Soviet military official and who was trained to be an elite KGB overseas operative, was taught the template and put to work in India attempting to infiltrate that country and bring it into the Warsaw Pact. He also worked at the Soviet RIA Novosti news organization, editing and planting propaganda materials into foreign media. The man knew exactly what he was talking about when he outlined how a Marxist revolution might be America down without firing a shot, just as Khrushchev had predicted.
Of course, the Soviet Union didn’t take America down. We won the Cold War and they lost. The USSR collapsed before we did, mostly because America had a leader in Ronald Reagan who had the vision and will to pressure the Soviets into collapse and openly talked of a day when Soviet communism was on the ash-heap of history.
But Reagan also warned that freedom is a fragile thing, and that it’s never more than one generation from extinction. That warning expired when Reagan did, as Americans grew far too complacent after the USSR fell apart and we forgot what communism means. And as the cold warriors of the 20th century passed into the history books, what replaced them was an American cultural and political elite either ignorant of the Marxist threat and how it might materialize, or far more concerned with the rise of Islam.
That’s how you got a red diaper baby like Barack Obama elected president of this country for two terms. It’s also how you got Republican state legislators, governors, and congressmen fully invested in throwing money into education, and particularly higher education, without a second of thought as to what they were funding. The teachers’ unions were the largest donors to Bernie Sanders. What do you think that tells you? Why are you surprised the schools are turning out students who think Washington and Jefferson were villains?
Back to Bezmenov, who warned us in 1984 that a free society collapses in four stages and the first is demoralization. What he meant by demoralization is a process by which students in schools controlled by disciples of leftist thought would be indoctrinated into a set of values and beliefs foreign to those of the American tradition. Bezmenov said, in 1984, mind you, that this would happen when the 1960s and 1970s student radicals began to control the educational institutions, and their project would be to throw out traditional Judeo-Christian morality, classical education, and American patriotism. Is there any doubt this has happened? Our young people are the least patriotic in our nation’s history, and the most ignorant of the cultural, intellectual, and ideological patrimony of which they are heirs.
It’s even worse than that, because the cultural Marxist project not just in our schools but in our media and entertainment institutions has poisoned those against the country. Remember when the NFL was an escape from politics? Remember when the movies Hollywood made extolled American values and made viewers feel good about their country?
When was the last time you saw anything from American education or corporate media that made you feel good about your country?
The first goal of revolutionary propaganda, particularly the Marxist variety, is to demoralize. It’s to depress you and make you believe your civilization is lost. Once you succumb to that, you are, in the words of Ming the Merciless, “satisfied with less.” Why do you think ordinary white people are so willing to apologize for the sins of their ancestors and to confess to being racist without even knowing it? Why do you think corporate America is blindly endorsing a Marxist revolutionary organization which openly declares war on the nuclear family?
That’s demoralization, and according to Bezmenov it’s the first step in engineered societal collapse.
What’s the second step? Destabilization.
Bezmenov describes that as a rapid decline in the structure of a society — its economy, its military, its international relations. We’ve discussed in this space the unquestionable impetus on the part of Democrats to keep the economy as hamstrung as possible with COVID-19 shutdowns, and those continue despite a precipitous decline in death rates as testing ramps up across the country. It’s clear the virus is no longer a significant threat to the health of Americans who don’t already have serious medical issues, and yet COVID hysteria is increasing, rather than decreasing. Just Wednesday the Ivy League shut down all its sporting events planned for the fall semester, an absurd decision which is nonetheless likely to be copied by other universities dominated by leftist political activists (the Big Ten, ACC, and SEC are all in various stages of planning conference-only schedules this fall, which makes no sense whatsoever). The virus is the perfect platform by which to impose the economic destabilization the Left has wanted all along.
No, that isn’t a conspiracy theory. They’re telling you it’s what they’re after. Do you believe Ilhan Omar was off-script when she suggested dismantling America’s economy as a system of oppression earlier this week? Ilhan Omar, who paid a political consultant $900,000 in fees last year, money which came from somewhere, isn’t smart enough to say these things without having the script written for her. She’s being trotted out to introduce them because she’s already radioactive and a lightning rod for criticism, and also because she’s (1) black, (2) Muslim, and (3) an immigrant, and even an illegal one. To criticize her statements as cracked bears the signature not of incisive reasoning but rather racism. So when other Democrats join her call you are no longer allowed to object.
Google Omar’s statements and what you’ll find is a loud cacophony of gaslighting by left-wing media outlets like Common Dreams, The Nation, the Washington Post and others attacking Republicans for reacting to what they saw and heard on video as “meltdowns” and “losing their minds.” Even Snopes, the left-wing site purportedly acting as a fact-check operation, declares that Omar didn’t actually say what she said.
That’s destabilization. They’re fully engaged in it, whether you believe they’ve been successful or not. But ask Mark McCloskey, for example, whether he thinks it’s outlandish to suggest the American order has been destabilized. McCloskey told Tucker Carlson that after the police told him they couldn’t protect him after the incident where he and his wife used guns to protect their property from a mob of Black Lives Matter trespassers, he called around to private security firms for help and was given advice to get out of his house and let the mob do what they would. Does that sound like a stable society to you?
The third stage is crisis, the catalyzing event that builds on the first two stages to bring on the change the revolutionaries are looking for. Looking for a crisis? Take your pick. We barely even remember the fact that we just had only the third presidential impeachment in American history half a year ago, a constitutional crisis which was wholly and completely manufactured directly out of thin air. We progressed immediately from that to COVID-19, which was unquestionably a manufactured crisis — not that the virus itself isn’t deadly to a certain portion of the population, but if you think the panic and destruction it’s caused doesn’t smack of manufacture then it’s clear you’ve been demoralized.
And then the George Floyd riots and the paroxysms of violence and virtue-signaling those have brought on, complete with the current campaign to bowdlerize American history and culture in an increasingly indiscriminate fashion. That’s a crisis, everybody, and it’s a completely manufactured one. The speed of the cultural collapse that followed Floyd’s death — when the legal system moved very swiftly against the police officers responsible for it — makes it undeniable this was planned and only needed a catalyst.
What’s the fourth stage? Normalization. As in, a “new normal.” The statues and monuments are gone, the ball games are out, or at least you aren’t allowed in the stadium to watch them (and you’ve got to watch them on TV interspersed with commercial spots and in-game messaging pushing whatever memes and narratives the ESPNs and NBCs of the world and their Madison Avenue partners wish to implant in your mind), the schools have purged American history and culture, the Universal Basic Income checks have replaced your job which you can’t do because the small business where you used to work has gone under thanks to the virus.
And Biden is president. For a little while, until it’s clear he’s incapacitated per the 25th Amendment, and then somebody else that you didn’t vote for is in charge of the country.
Out goes Kerensky. In comes … who knows what?
Let’s hope your confidence none of this can happen is well-placed. Let’s hope Bezmenov was a crank like people think G. Edward Griffin is.
But just to be sure, let’s make damned sure Biden and the Democrats take an historic beating in November. We don’t want to find out what’s behind the curtain in Biden’s basement. Too many nasty things are already peaking out at us from there.
submitted by Venus230 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2020.07.09 08:02 Justwonderinif The Keepers Timeline II

Fall, 1969
  • September: Cathy goes to visit Koob at Manresa, the Annapolis retreat where he lived and worked. By this time, Cathy had learned that The Order had declined her request to live outside the convent and teach at a public school. The Order had told her that she had to go back into the convent, or stop being a nun. She had to give an answer by December 31. Koob said his sister in Boston gave Cathy expensive clothing, including a bright red suit. Cathy styled her hair fashionably and wore the suit to see him at Manresa. “She was beautiful,” Koob recalled, and his fellow Jesuits just stared at her. “I remember thinking, ‘Do you know what you’ve done?’ And I said that to her later.”
  • Russell begins teaching at Rock Glen Middle School (across the street from The Carriage House Apartments)
  • Cathy begins teaching at Western High School.
  • Maskell victims: Jean, Deb Silcox and Lil Hughes start their Junior years at Keough. Charles starts his Junior year at Mt. St. Joseph. Maskell victim Teresa Lancaster starts her sophomore (10th grade) year at Keough.
    • Wehner said that despite Cesnik’s promise to intervene with Maskell on her behalf, the priest continued to abuse her after she returned from summer break, even more violently than before.
  • Cesnik lived in a modest apartment in Southwest Baltimore with another nun, and her students would occasionally drop by in the evenings or on weekends to chat, sing and play music. “She was the reason I became a teacher,” Hoskins said. “I’ve never met anyone like her.”
    • Cesnik maintained close ties to her former students, who visited her apartment regularly. Maskell remained a frequent topic of conversation for some of them.
  • Maskell begins third year as school chaplain and counselor at Archbishop Keough.
    • "My parents fought a lot and embarrassed me," says one alum from the class of 1972, who mentioned this to Maskell during a smoking session. "He homed in on that. And he said, 'Come sit on my lap.' I sat on his lap, and he rocked me back and forth until I started getting weird feelings. As he was rocking me, he said, 'Your father isn't affectionate enough with you.' I was upset because he was saying stuff about my father, and it made me cry," she says, adding that her mother called the school to complain about the incident only to have her call transferred directly to Maskell. "She told him to just leave me alone."
    • Deborah Wisner, of Keough's class of '74, also went to see Maskell to smoke and discuss family problems. She says he showed her a series of ink blots, diagnosed her as "sexually frus­trated," and recommended further counseling. She avoided his office from then on by walking up an extra flight of stairs.
    • Former Keough student Karen (not her real name) says Maskell called her into his office one morning and told her that someone had seen her with her boyfriend naked in a parked car. "I told him that it couldn't have been true," she recalls. "No matter what I said to him, he said, 'I understand, dear. Now let's talk about it.'" According to Karen, Maskell had specific questions about her boyfriend's anatomy. For six hours, she says, he interrogated her. "He told me my problem was that I was frigid," she claims. "He took his big pocket watch out. He said he could hypnotize me and help me."
    • Other Keough alums also recall that Maskell presented himself as a sexual healer. Several women said that Maskell claimed to be an actual gynecologist. ("He's always been a frustrated doctor," says his half-brother Tom).
    • One of these women adds that Maskell was so taken with himself that, as part of her counseling, he put his face within a few inches of hers and asked her to look into his eyes and tell him how beautiful they were and how good looking he was.
    • Ann (not her real name), says Maskell invited her on a boat ride with some other girls. As they drove along the Beltway, she asked him where the other kids were and was told they couldn't make it. They arrived at the boat, docked in the Dundalk area, and after helping her aboard, Maskell suggested that they just sit around and talk. At some point, she says, he told her about a church renovation project that unearthed, behind an old radiator, dozens of desiccated condoms.
    • "I really don't think you should be talking to me about these kinds of things," she told him. He changed the subject, but after he lapsed into a description of sights he'd seen on lovers' lane, Ann says she asked to be taken home. She stayed away from Maskell, but about a year later, she discovered to her chagrin that Maskell was sitting opposite her in a confessional. She claims he quizzed her about her sex life, which, at 14, was nonexistent, and as she tried to answer his questions, she squeezed her eyes tight in the vain hope that he wouldn't see her. That was her last confession for 20 years.
    • Stacy (not her real name) knew Maskell from both St. Clement and Keough, where she was a member of the class of '72. She claims that one day during ninth grade, Maskell summoned her to his office to mention that her reading aptitude was below par. He sat on his desk, perched above her. "He said that I wouldn't have gotten into Keough unless he'd pulled strings. I was kind of frightened. I said, 'Gee, I thought I got in on my own merit.' And he said, 'No, you have a reading disability, and you would never have gotten in if it weren't for me.' And then he asked me if there was anything that I could do for him. I said, 'No, not that I can think of.' I didn't know what he was getting at," says Stacy.
  • October, 1969: Edgar and Margaret's twins are born but the girl has to say in the hospital as she's premature and under-weight.
Monday, November 3, 1969
  • Cathy types a letter to Gerry Koob: My very dearest Gerry: 'If Ever I Should Leave You' is playing on the radio. My period has finally arrives, ten days late, so you might say I'm moody. My heart aches so for you. I must wait on you, your time, and your need, because your life is so erratic. I think I can begin to live with that more easily now than I did two months ago, just loving you within myself. I must tell you, I want you within me. I want to have your children. I love you.
Tuesday, November 4, 1969
  • Three days before Cesnik disappeared, Koob called her from a Catholic retreat to tell her he still loved her. He was prepared to leave the priesthood for her and hoped she’d leave the nunhood for him. “I said, ‘If you decide to leave, we’ll leave and get married,” Koob told The Huffington Post in an interview.
Wednesday, November 5, 1969
  • Two days before Cesnik disappeared, Hobeck and a classmate visited Cesnik at home, and Cathy asked whether Maskell was still bothering them. “We told her no, and that was the end of it,” Hobeck said.
Thursday, November 6, 1969
  • And another former Keough student, who spoke to The Huffington Post on the condition of anonymity, visited Cesnik at her apartment the night before she disappeared to discuss the abuse going on at the school. In the middle of their conversation, this woman said, Maskell and Magnus barged into Cesnik’s apartment without knocking. “Maskell glared at me,” she said. “He knew why I was there.” The woman said she left Cesnik’s apartment at that point.
  • The anonymous woman says her boyfriend was there, and Cathy's roommate Helen Russell Phillips was there. [Why hasn't the boyfriend been asked about this?]
Friday, November 7, 1969
  • According to Abbie: Cathy drove someone to Western High School on the morning of November 7. That person saw several pieces of mail on the dash of Cathy's car. This suggests that the letter to Cathy's sister was mailed after last pick up time on November 7 and picked up on usual postal rounds November 8. Police investigated where the letter might have been mailed from but there was no conclusive outcome.
  • The following day at school, Maskell called [Anonymous] into his office. With a gun in his hand, he warned her that if she ever told anyone about the abuse, he would kill her, her boyfriend and her entire family. “That I remember as though it happened yesterday,” she said, “because I have been protecting my family ever since.” Cesnik vanished that night.
  • 11:30AM: Western High School student Juliana Farrell says that Cathy was her 11th grade English teacher in 1969. Juliana says Cathy was excited to get an engagement gift or her sister (that night) and that was the last time she ever saw her.
  • 2:30/2:40PM: Western High School is out for the day. (Gerry Koob says he didn't have a retreat that day.)
  • Margaret and Ed's daughter is ready to be picked up from the hospital the next day. Six months earlier Ed had choked Margaret.
  • 7PM: Koob and Peter McKeon are in Baltimore at the Tower Theatre watching Easy Rider. Theatre located at 222 N. Charles Street? Movie Listings
  • 7:30PM: According to Cathy's roommate, Helen Russell Phillips, Cathy left the Carriage House Apartments. Cesnik said she was going to swing by the bank and then shop for an engagement gift for her sister. “She never came back,” said Russell.
    • Missing Persons Report notes that Russell said Cathy was going to "cash some checks" at Hechts.
    • Cathy drove the green 1969 Ford Maverick to a First National Bank at 705 Frederick Road in Catonsville. Cathy cashed a $255.00 paycheck ($1,800.00 in 2017), then went to Hecht's Edmondson Village (now a Skill's Center) where she bought buns at the Muhly’s Bakery location inside Hecht's department store. Hecht's Edmondson Village was at 4501 Edmondson, across the street from Edmondson Village. It is speculated that Cathy bought a necklace for her sister at Hecht's. Then Cathy vanished. The box of bakery buns were found in her car.
    • [Per Missy Muhly: There was a Muhly's Bakery in the center of the Hecht Company Store on the first floor right as you walked in. It stayed open until either 9 or 10 at night, depending how late The Hecht Company Store stayed open. It was in that location from around 1965 to 1980. There was also a Muhly's Bakery located in the Edmonson Village Shopping Center from around 1969 to 1971. That location would have closed around 6 or 7 PM.]
    • Russell said that the two “always communicated” and that Russell was sure Cathy would have called if she had planned to go somewhere else. Also, she said, “convent habits die hard; we didn’t stay out after 10 o’clock.”
  • 8PM Approximate: The movie "Easy Rider" would have been over. If Koob and Pete didn't have dinner before, they had dinner after, then start the drive back to Manresa. Peter told investigators he was back home in Beltsville when he got the call about Cathy's disappearance. Koob says that he and Pete were in Annapolis, at Manresa, when Russell called about Cathy's failure to arrive home.
  • 8:30PM: A flight attendant who lived at the Carriage House remembers seeing Cathy in her car in the parking lot as if she was waiting for something. According to Abbie: A neighbor reported car was back at that apartment parking lot at 8:30pm but the neighbor did not see if Sister Cathy was in the car.
  • 8:30PM: A Carriage House resident told police that Cathy's car was pulled into its regular parking space about 8:30PM, but couldn't say who was driving or how many people were in the car.
    • Another witness told police that a similar car pulled up near Cathy's Maverick and that she followed it. “She knew who pulled in behind her,” a former investigator said. “She either met them at the bank or the shopping center.” But the report of the second car was not substantiated.
    • Detective Childs says that there is a police report indicating that someone saw Cathy's vehicle "leaving the scene" with Cathy trying to exit the vehicle from the passenger side. The witness apparently said that Cathy never got out of the vehicle.
  • 9PM-10PM: According to Abbie: A man was walking on Mardrew Road toward North Bend in the area where Cathy’s car was found. He reported that he passed a white man (age 20-25 years old, about 6’1”, 150-170 pounds, slender build, dark hair, dark clothing.) The mans left arm was hanging as if it was limp and he made a stomping noise when he walked.
  • 9:30PM: Ed walks into his house and his wife Margaret notices that his shirt is bloody. Ed says he got into a fight at work.
  • 10PM: According to Abbie: Others reported seeing car parked oddly on curb across the street starting around 10:00pm.
  • 10PM: According to Abbie: A woman said she saw a young white male (wearing a light jacket) park a dark colored car in the 5500 block of Carriage Court about 10PM. The young man walked south toward Frederick Avenue (down the hill away from the car he just parked.) The woman thought this unusual because there was ample room to park further down the street.
  • 10:30PM: According to Koob, he and and Pete are back at Manresa in Annapolis, drinking Tia Maria, and talking about the "Easy Rider" from 10:30PM - Midnight, when Russell called to say Cathy was missing. But Pete told the Baltimore Sun that he drove to Cathy's from Beltsville, MD where he lived at the Christian Brothers Monastery.
  • 10:30PM: Other people told police they noticed the car left near the apartment about 10:30PM. [Police received several calls about the “oddly parked vehicle.”]
  • 11PM: Per the Baltimore Sun, when Cathy didn’t return by 11, Russell grew worried and placed a frantic call to Gerry Koob at Manresa. Koob and McKeon had just returned from dinner and a movie in downtown Baltimore. The two men rushed back to the city from Manresa. It would have taken about 40 minutes to get to the Carriage House
  • 11PM: According to Abbie: *Other people saw [the car] around 11:00pm and 11:20pm.
Saturday, Nov. 8, 1969
  • Koob's account places Russell's call to Koob after midnight: Concerned about Cathy, early in the morning Russell called McKeon and Koob, who drove to Baltimore from Beltsville to comfort her. After hearing Russell’s story, the three called city police to report Sister Cesnik missing.
    • 1AM: In The Keepers, Gerry said that he and Pete got to the Carriage House quickly, listened to Russell for about an hour, then called the police at 1AM. A police officer showed up and wrote everything down and left. After the officer left, Gerry said mass. At 3:30 AM, Gerry and Pete went to take a walk and discovered Cathy’s car parked in the middle of Lantern Court, practically blocking traffic, with the door ajar, keys in the ignition. (Other reports say 4:40AM)
    • 1:30 AM: Missing Persons Report notes that Russell called the police to report Cathy missing at approximately 1:30AM.
  • 4:40 AM: McKeon found Cathy's car, unlocked, in the middle of the street, across from the Carriage House driveway. Other reports have Russell and Koob also finding the car with McKeon. The car was towed to the Southwestern District station. “We went to it and opened the door,” said McKeon. “There was a broken umbrella in the back seat. It looked like there had been a struggle.”
  • The tires were muddy and brake pedal was muddy. But the gas pedal wasn't muddy. This suggested to investigators that the person who drove the car back to the carriage house was driving with both feet and had mud on his left shoe, but not his right.
  • 8AM: According to Abbie: Other people saw [the car] at 8am on Nov 8.
Sunday, November 9, 1969
  • Thirty-five city police officers and 5 dog teams scoured a 14-block area of southwest Baltimore from dawn until dusk. Police knocked on doors, searched alleys and deserted buildings, and sent men and dogs through rain-soaked park areas from Athol Avenue to the Baltimore County line. They were aided by many civilian searchers. Police theorized that Cathy may have left the car and gone into a wooded area. The car was found a mile from sprawling, wooded Leakin Park. Police, aided by K-9 corps dogs and civilians, searched the Leakin Park and Irvington areas of the city without a trace.
    • According to Abbie: K-9 and police searches were done of fields and areas with no helpful findings.
    • Photo 1 of the Search and -Photo 2 of the Search
    • City police took the car to the Southwestern District station, and a manhunt began in Southwest Baltimore and the neighboring areas of Baltimore County. No trace of Cathy was found until the hunters stumbled upon her body weeks later.
    • The car was processed by the crime lab. In the vehicle, police found a box of buns purchased at Muhly’s Bakery, which was located in the Hecht company store in Edmondson Village, along with leaves and twigs. Branches had been caught in the car’s radio antenna. A twig hooked with long piece of grass found on the turn-signal lever. According to Abbie: The Ford Maverick was towed to police for processing, report is very short, just says “Car processed for latent prints with negative results and if pictures are needed two days advance notice is required.”
    • County police say that no unaccountable fingerprints turned up in the car. Except for the umbrella and a twig hooked with a long piece of grass on the turn signal lever, nothing significant was found.
    • Police still don’t know how and where Cahty was abducted or how her car, its wheels muddy, was returned to her neighborhood.
  • Baltimore Sun: City Police Search For Missing Nun, 26. Cathy was described as 5 feet, 5 inches tall, 115 pounds with green eyes, blonde hair and fair complexion. She was wearing an aqua coat, navy blue suit, yellow sweater and black shoes. Baltimore Sun front page. Baltimore Sun's Map incorrectly identifies the location of Cathy's abandoned car.
  • Ed and Margaret pick up their daughter from the hospital.
  • Ed and Margaret watch the evening news about Cathy's disappearance. Ed laughs and says that Cathy will be covered in snow by the time they find her. Ed is smirking and laughing. Shortly afterwards, Ed bought new tires they could not afford and didn't need.
Monday, November 10, 1969
  • Police continued to check tips and leads but don’t resume large-scale searches. Captain John C. Barnhold Jr., head of the city’s homicide squad, said there was “no evidence of foul play” in Sister Cesnik’s disappearance. “We could find no evidence of violence of any kind,” Barnhold said.
  • Photo of Cathy's father and "a friend outside Cathy's apartment on November 10.
  • The man assigned to investigate Cesnik’s disappearance was Nick Giangrasso, a 28-year-old homicide detective who had worked in the Baltimore City Police Department for five years. Giangrasso led the investigation for the three months Cesnik was missing, then had to turn the case over to Baltimore County detectives when her body was found outside the city limits. But Giangrasso, now 72, spent enough time on the case to feel like something suspicious was going on between the police department and the church. “The Catholic Church had a lot of input into the police department,” he said. “A lot of power." He said it was clear to him from the fact that her car had been deposited back at her apartment complex without any signs of struggle that she had not been the victim of a random robbery or assault. “It looked too clean,” he said. “It had to be somebody who knew her.”
  • The first person of interest in Giangrasso’s investigation was Gerard Koob, a Jesuit priest. Koob was one of the priests Cesnik’s roommate had called when she realized Cathy had not returned from her shopping trip, and he had been the one to call police to report Cesnik missing.
    • The police brought Koob in for questioning, but he had an alibi for the night that Cesnik disappeared. He and a fellow priest had gone to dinner in downtown Baltimore and watched “Easy Rider” at a movie theater afterward. He produced receipts and ticket stubs and passed two lie detector tests. According to Abbie: "Father Koob and Brother McKeon were given lie detectors tests, both of which showed no deception/were negative."
    • Giangrasso had a gut feeling that Cesnik had been murdered by someone with ties to the church. “I personally thought it was in-house, within her social network — the priests and the religious order,” he said. Giangrasso interviewed half a dozen priests who knew Cesnik as his investigation continued, and there was one in particular whose name kept coming up: Father Maskell, who worked with Cesnik at Keough. Giangrasso said he tried to interview Maskell a number of times about Cesnik’s disappearance, but the priest always managed to elude him. “He was always busy and never available,” Giangrasso said. “It got to the point that Maskell was the number one guy we wanted to talk to, but we never got a chance.”
    • In Baltimore in 1969, Giangrasso said, it was very difficult, if not impossible, to investigate a Catholic priest for any crime. Maskell in particular was a difficult target. At the time, he served as the chaplain for the Baltimore County police, the Maryland State Police and the Maryland National Guard. Maskell kept a police scanner and loaded handgun in his car, drank beer with the officers at a local dive bar, and often went on “ride-alongs” with his police friends at night to respond to petty crimes or catch teenagers making out in their cars.
    • Bob Fisher, the owner of an automotive repair shop in southwest Baltimore where Maskell took his car on his days off, remembers the priest boasting about his police privileges to anyone who would listen. “He’d say, ‘I’d hear something on the scanner, and we’d jump in the car and take off, and we’d catch these people!’” said Fisher, 74. “Really wild stories.”
    • Maskell’s older brother, Tommy, was a hero cop who had been shot and injured while trying to stop a robbery. Going after Maskell would mean violating the unwritten rules by which the police operated. “We’re a police family,” Giangrasso said. “The policeman’s involved, his family’s involved, we try to help the guy out. When we found out Maskell’s brother was a lieutenant, we knew we had a problem.”
    • Giangrasso remembers feeling pressure from his superiors to leave Maskell and other members of the clergy alone. “I felt like the church was coming in and interfering, and the chain of command was coming down and checking on us — ‘How much longer are you gonna be playing with this case?’— as if to say, you gotta back off and move on,” he said. The Baltimore City police did not respond to a request for comment.
Tuesday, November 11 , 1969
  • City homicide detectives said they had no reason to believe that Cathy was kidnapped.
  • Joyce Helen Malecki, 20, went missing the evening of Nov. 11. She had left her home in Baltimore to go shopping in Glen Burnie and for a date with a friend stationed at Fort Meade Army base. Police begin searching for Malecki.
  • Approximate/According to Abbie: Police interviewed workers at Edmondson Village. They did not find an employee who recalled selling anything to Sister Cathy. But not all Hechts’ employees were interviewed. We know she was at the shopping center.
Wednesday, November 12, 1969
  • Approximate (From the Huffington Post):
    • On a frigid day in November 1969, Father Joseph Maskell, the chaplain of Archbishop Keough High School in Baltimore, called a student into his office and suggested they go for a drive. When the final bell rang at 2:40 p.m., Jean Hargadon Wehner, a 16-year-old junior at the all-girls Catholic school, followed the priest to the parking lot and climbed into the passenger seat of his light blue Buick Roadmaster.
    • It was not unusual for Maskell to give students rides home or take them to doctor’s appointments during the school day. The burly, charismatic priest, then 30 years old, had been the chief spiritual and psychological counselor at Keough for two years and was well-known in the community. Annual tuition at Keough was just $200, which attracted working-class families in deeply Catholic southwest Baltimore who couldn’t afford to send their daughters to fancier private schools. Many Keough parents had attended Maskell’s Sunday masses. He’d baptized their babies, and they trusted him implicitly.
    • This time, though, Maskell didn’t bring Wehner home. He navigated his car past the Catholic hospital and industrial buildings that surrounded Keough’s campus and drove toward the outskirts of the city. Eventually, he stopped at a garbage dump, far from any homes or businesses. Maskell stepped out of the car, and the blonde, freckled teenager followed him across a vast expanse of dirt toward a dark green dumpster.
    • It was then that she saw the body crumpled on the ground. The week prior, Sister Cathy Cesnik, a popular young nun who taught English and drama at Keough, had vanished while on a Friday-night shopping trip. Students, parents and the local media buzzed about the 26-year-old’s disappearance. People from all over Baltimore County helped the police comb local parks and wooded areas for any sign of her.
    • Wehner immediately recognized the lifeless body as her teacher. “I knew it was her,” she recalled recently. “She wasn’t that far gone that you couldn’t tell it was her.” Cesnik was still clad in her aqua-colored coat, and maggots were crawling on her face. Wehner tried to brush them off with her bare hands. “Help me get these off of her!” she cried, turning to Maskell in a panic. Instead, she says, the priest leaned down behind her and whispered in her ear: “You see what happens when you say bad things about people?” Maskell, Wehner understood, was threatening her. She decided not to tell anyone. “He terrified me to the point that I would never open my mouth,” she recalled.
  • Although the presence of maggots would appear to be unlikely in the usually cold month of November, the autopsy disclosed maggots in Cathy's throat, a detail never made public.
  • Jean said she was taken to Maskell's office, where a man she has not identified said he had beaten Cathy to death because Cathy knew about the sexual abuse, and was going to go to the police. Jean said she was threatened with the same fate if she did not swear eternal silence, and refers to this man as "Brother Bob." Jean said Maskell asked Brother Bob, "Did you take care of it? Is she going to be quiet?" And Brother Bob said, "Yes. She's not going to tell anyone anything." To this day, Jean is terrified by Brother Bob.
  • Malecki’s abandoned, unlocked car was found parked in a lot of a vacant gas station in an area of Odenton called Boom Town. Her car, with the keys still in the ignition, was found by her brother. Her glasses and groceries she had purchased in Glen Burnie were found in the car.
Thursday, November 13, 1969
  • Malecki’s body was found floating in the Little Patuxent River by two deer hunters on the western edge of Soldiers Park, a Fort Meade training area. The FBI and military police immediately closed the site. City police continued to check leads in the disappearance of Sister Cesnik.
Friday, November 14, 1969
  • An autopsy of Malecki’s body revealed that the victim was stabbed and choked and her hands were bound behind her with a cord. She had a number of scratches and bruises indicating a struggle. The cause of her death was either choking or drowning -- further test were needed to determine the cause. Malecki was described as 5 feet, 7 inches tall and 112 pounds. She had brown hair and brown eyes. Baltimore homicide detectives reported that Sister Cesnik was still considered a missing person with no new leads.
  • Approximate: Cathy's sister Marilyn is back in school and a letter from Cathy appears in her mailbox. Marilyn's father instructs her not to open it and to call the police. Marilyn gave the letter to the office and it hasn't been seen since.
  • According to Abbie: By November 14, 1969 Sister Cathy’s father had the envelope from the letter Cathy sent to her sister, postmarked November 8.
Saturday, November 16, 1969
  • Police investigated whether a pair of black high-heeled shoes found near Malecki’s watery grave belonged to Sister Cesnik, who was said to be wearing black shoes at time of her disappearance. “We have no indication that they are Sister Cesnik’s shoes, but we will check it out,” Capt. Barnold said at the time.
Sunday, November 16, 1969
  • Cathy's 27th birthday
December 25, 1969
  • Edgar gives Margaret a necklace for Christmas. The pendant is a wedding bell with Cathy's sister's finance's birth stone. Speculation is that Edgar got this necklace from Cathy when he killed her, and that Cathy had purchased it at Hecht's when she was there (buns.) A jeweler on the The Keepers said it looked custom made. But there are photos on the internet from people claiming they have the same necklace, purchased around the same time, but in Oklahoma. Gemma has said that individuals have sent them other pictures of this necklace. One woman said she had the same necklace but with a different birthstone and that her brother had purchased it at a different Hecht's and given it to her for Christmas. Meaning of Peridot
Friday, January 2, 1970
Saturday, January 3, 1970
  • On a gray Saturday morning, two hunters crossing a snow-crusted field in Lansdowne stumbled on the partly clothed body of a young woman sprawled halfway down an embankment. The only evidence of life was fresh animal tracks.
    • With Baltimore’s daily newspapers on strike, the discovery of Cathy's frozen, mutilated body made barely a ripple compared with the furor over her mysterious disappearance eight weeks earlier.
    • Cathy's partly clad body was found by two hunters, a father and son, in a remote area in Lansdowne in Baltimore County. The body, partially hidden by an embankment and snow covered, was discovered about 100 yards from the 2100 block of Monumental Avenue. Police said it was probable that Cathy had been carried to the area or forced to walk there. (A car could not have been driven from Monumental Avenue to where the body was found.). An autopsy revealed a skull fracture caused by a blow to Cathy's left temple by a blunt instrument. Baltimore County Police take over the homicide investigation, which remains open to this day.
    • After the body was found, Dr. Werner U. Spitz, then deputy chief medical examiner for Maryland, said Sister Catherine had died from a 2-inch circular fracture of the left temple that was inflicted by a heavy with a blunt object, probably a brick. Marks on her neck indicated that she also had been choked.
    • Cesnik had choke marks on her neck and a round hole about the size of a quarter in the back of her skull. An autopsy confirmed she had been killed by a blow from a blunt object, probably a brick or a ball-peen hammer. But no one came forward with information about the murder, and the police never solved it.
    • In his report, the pathologist was unable to say with certainty whether she had been raped, because the lower body had been mutilated by animals. But he noted that “the disarray of the clothing suggests a sexual background to this killing.”
    • Dr. Spitz thinks Sister Catherine was killed somewhere else the night she disappeared and then dumped in the Lansdowne field.
    • The $255.00 ($1,800.00 in 2017 currency) was never found, although her purse -- containing personal articles -- lay near her body, along with several articles of clothing. Her rings and watch had not been removed, which prompted detectives who handled the original case to doubt the robbery motive.
    • That Cesnik’s body was found outside of his jurisdiction, in Baltimore County, where Maskell was chaplain, was no coincidence, Giangrasso thought. Nevertheless, he had to turn the case over to Baltimore County police. The county police never charged anyone.
Timeline III >>
submitted by Justwonderinif to Timelines [link] [comments]

2020.07.09 01:46 jcj6 My First Abortion

(Posting this on a throwaway account to avoid being harassed/doxxed/etc.)
I referenced this subreddit so often leading up to my abortion, and I am eternally grateful for the other women who've shared their stories here. I wanted to share mine in hopes it would help ease others' minds as y'all have eased mine.
I'm a 20 year old woman living in Pennsylvania, USA, and I got pregnant sometime after March 11th of this year. (My last period began that day.) My partner, who's 21, and I quarantined together after he was sent home from college. We've been together for over 5 years. As you could imagine, we had a lot of sex, lmao.
We mostly relied on the withdrawal method for birth control because I have bipolar I and chronic migraines and do not handle hormonal birth control well. I also have close family members who have had serious uterine damage from IUDs, so I really don't want to use those either. We used condoms occasionally, but we thought the pull out method was enough because I've never gotten pregnant as long as we were together. Around March 27th, I took Plan B (which I've taken at least 5 times before) because we had a close call. However, I think by that time I was already pregnant.
Over the first two weeks of April, I had consistent nausea, vomiting, cramping, constipation, drastic changes in appetite, and strange food aversions. I track my periods on a calendar, so I knew it was too early to know for sure if I was pregnant yet. I waited anxiously for my period to come, but alas, it never came and my new stomach problems only worsened. Soon after, my breasts began to swell and grow excruciatingly sore. My partner and I worried I might be pregnant, but brushed it off because how could I possibly get pregnant from pulling out, now, after all these years of it 'working?' My periods can also get irregular due to stress, and we had just transferred all of our college coursework online, so I chalked it up to that.
After my period was a full two weeks late, I knew I needed to take a test. I got some Clearblue tests and took them on April 23rd, thinking there was just no way I could be pregnant. I was so sure it was nothing.
When the test read positive, I immediately threw up from anxiety. My partner knew my vomiting wasn't a good sign, and he became just as anxious after he saw it. We were convinced something must have been wrong, maybe a false positive. Google and the pamphlet included with my pregnancy tests were clear that false positives are extremely, extremely rare.
I know it sounds dramatic, but I genuinely felt like my life ended there. I was so afraid. It was in the middle of my final exam week, and I was more stressed than I'd ever been about school. My partner and I want to have children someday, but I knew it wasn't a good time. We both still need to finish undergrad, and he's going to graduate school. I couldn't imagine giving birth to a baby before my 21st birthday, even though I've known teenagers who're great mothers. We sobbed and screamed and laid in bed awhile, debating what to do. He reassured me that it was my body and my pregnancy, so he would support me in whatever choice I made. I told him it was technically his pregnancy too, and I wanted both of us to be on the same page. Although he has always been outspokenly pro-choice, he's Christian (I'm an agnostic atheist), so I was concerned he would feel differently about his own seed. He didn't.
We both agreed that, due to our financial, school, and living situations that it would be impossible to have a child now without upending the direction of our lives. An abortion was the right choice for us. We spoke with my mother (who had an abortion at 17), and she agreed wholeheartedly and suggested we call Planned Parenthood the very next morning. We chose not to tell his parents because we're unsure whether they're pro-life and wanted to avoid unnecessary conflict. We didn't tell another soul.
I took another test that evening just to check, and it was positive as well. We were sad that I was pregnant, because I have always been concerned I have fertility problems and we now know I can have children. We felt love for the little bundle of cells growing in me, disappointment for allowing it to happen, excitement with the magic of my body, fear of what lie ahead, and a whole range of other emotions. While it was absolutely the right decision, having an abortion was certainly bittersweet.
I called Planned Parenthood the next morning, April 24th, and was shocked at how easy everything was, even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Luckily, our governor is pro-choice and swore to uphold access to abortion throughout our state during COVID-19. I told the PP employee on the phone that I was absolutely sure I was pregnant and even surer I wanted to get an abortion, and she set one up for me on May 2nd. She just took my basic information (name/birth date/address/phone/pronouns) and insurance information, and that was it. She was kind and reassuring, and I couldn't have felt better after getting off the phone. I was also so happy that my state values women's right to choose.
I also had to have a phone call with a PP doctor on April 28th, which served as my mandatory counseling (PA law requires everyone who gets an abortion to hear info about all of their options (having the child, adoption, and abortions) and the details of each kind of abortion procedure at least 48 hours before their abortion.) The phone call got rescheduled but it wasn't a big deal, since I was unemployed and in quarantine due to the pandemic anyways. There were a lot of other women on the call, like a conference call, and the doctor read the information she was required to all of us at the same time, then she dialed us individually. I was worried the call would scare me, because unfortunately, PA law doesn't require the counseling to be medically accurate, and I was worried they force doctors to scare women as much as they can. However, everything she said was clear, concise, and medically correct. She read us real statistics about childbirth and abortions (abortions are way less risky, as you probably know) and gave factual, clear information on what we could expect from each procedure. After that, I just had to wait on the line for her to talk to me individually. She just asked how far along I thought I was, when the first day of my last period was, and if I had a preference for which procedure I wanted. I am terrified of surgeries and was only 6 weeks out from my last period, so I chose the medical/medication abortion. She also asked if I had a way to pay for it, because my insurance didn't cover abortions. It was $435, but I had enough money from my last unemployment check to pay for it. She was also very kind and calming, and reassured me about some of my pregnancy symptoms I was concerned about.
Again, I was so thankful for so many things -- the doctor, PP, my state's governor, our laws, having means to pay for it without issue, my partner, everything. The hardest thing was waiting until May 2nd, because my pregnancy symptoms were pretty severe and it definitely caused me some anxiety. The worst was morning sickness (which was all day for me), as I've had an extremely strong fear of throwing up for as long as I can remember and anxiety also causes me to vomit. As you can imagine, it was a never-ending cycle of getting sick, being afraid I'd get sick again, and scaring myself sick. Honestly, marijuana was the only thing that curbed my anxiety/nausea (I don't know for sure which exactly it helped, but it was probably a bit of both lol). I also used it to help ease breast pain and cramps.
But before I knew it, it was time for my appointment. The abortion clinic is smack in the middle of our city, and we only live 20 minutes outside downtown, so it wasn't far. My partner drove me. I also scheduled it in the afternoon, so I was able to sleep in and relax before I had to go. I did throw up a bunch at home, on the way there, and once I got into the clinic, but it was from how nervous I was.
There were pro-life protestors outside the clinic, but they didn't even talk to or approach my partner and I (he looks very intimidating, thankfully!). When we got in, he had to wait in the main lobby due to PP's COVID restrictions (we also had to wear masks, of course). I had to go through two security desks with my ID, then they led me into an elevator to an unnumbered floor that was the actual clinic check-in. They asked if I had any COVID symptoms, took my temperature, had me sign all of my paperwork, and had me give a urine sample. I was so nervous that I threw up twice during checking in (the bathroom was close by, luckily) and was so embarrassed, but the PP employees were understanding. They said it was okay to be nervous, that everyone is, and lots of people throw up from anxiety. The woman checking me in even made a joke about throwing up before her first gynecology appointment, which made me feel so much better.
When I finished checking in, I had to take steps up to another unnumbered floor to get a vaginal ultrasound. I've never even been to the gynecologist, so I was nervous about having my vagina probed and threw up again. The upstairs employees were also really kind and understanding about my anxiety. They had a table of crackers and ginger ale out and an employee helped me get some to calm my stomach. The ultrasound technician was just as kind, and she gave me privacy when I needed to undress/redress. She asked if I wanted to know if there were multiple embryos, and I said yes. She also asked if I wanted a picture, and I said yes because my partner and I agreed it would be nice to keep. She also explained everything she was doing before she did it and asked if I had questions, so I was never surprised by what happened next. I had one embryo inside me and it looked about 7 weeks old, like we expected. It also was healthy and in the proper place (inside my uterus instead of outside). Overall, the ultrasound was really quick and easy.
After my ultrasound, I was sent back down the stairs to wait for a counselor to meet with me. I didn't know that was part of the appointment, and was nervous they would tell me scary/medically inaccurate information. They didn't! They really were a counselor in the traditional sense. They just talked to me about how I was feeling, how it has felt to be pregnant, how I was feeling about my abortion, etc. They also asked a few questions about my partnerelationship to make sure I wasn't being pressured or coerced into getting an abortion. We talked for awhile and did breathing exercises. They calmed me down SO much that I wished the counseling came first, so I wouldn't have been so nervous the whole time! The counselor also took my blood to make sure I wasn't Rh-, and discussed some birth control options with me.
After we finished, I was sent back upstairs to wait for the clinic doctor to administer the mifepristone to me and give me instructions for the at-home portion of my abortion. She discussed the different ways I could take the 4 misoprostol pills, and we decided vaginally would be best for me because of my severe nausea. She also told me my options for the follow-up. I had to have a phone call with the doctor one week after taking the misoprostol, but I could choose to either schedule an in-person ultrasound 30 days after my abortion (which was no additional charge) or to take an at-home pregnancy test and have a phone call with the doctor at 30 days. My partner and multiple members of my live-in family are immunocompromised, so I chose to do take the test at home and have a phone call to avoid possibly exposing myself to COVID-19. The doctor gave me a special high-sensitivity test, the misoprostol pills, and a packet of instructions. She told me to call their emergency line if I had any severe bleeding or other serious side effects and circled the number for me in my packet. She also wrote me a script for a few oxycodone and told me to take them if my pain was unmanageable with regular ibuprofen. Afterwards, I went back downstairs and my partner drove us home.
I took the mifepristone at 3 PM, so I waited until 10:30 PM to take the misoprostol. I took ibuprofen half an hour before and made sure I had plenty of crackers, water, blankets, and maxi pads on hand. My partner helped me insert them and we laid together after. It was a little sad, especially for him. I was so anxious and miserable about being pregnant that I had already grieved and was more than ready to have the abortion. Since he didn't experience the same anxiety, he didn't think about my pregnancy as constantly and deeply as I did, so he really only began feeling and understanding his grief after I took the pills. I was also anxious about what would happen, and I feared the pain would be excruciating or something would go wrong. We comforted each other.
I started bleeding heavily by 2 AM. I sat on the toilet until about 4 AM, and then I went to bed because I was so tired. At that point, the pain wasn't bad at all! It was about on par with my period. I did bleed and clot a lot, which freaked me out, but my partner helped me by checking to make sure I passed the pregnancy tissue. I get really queasy with blood (I've gotten used to my period, but the bleeding that evening was a lot more than my average period), so I was thankful to have him around.
I woke up around 6 AM with breakthrough pain, so I took one oxycodone and went back to sleep. When I woke up (around noon), I bled through my pad and pants, but I laid out extra blankets and towels to be prepared for that, so it wasn't a big deal. I also got baby wipes to help clean myself up easily without going through the effort of showering every time I went to the bathroom, which came in handy. My partner helped me get food, water, blankets, clothes, anything I needed while I was going through the worst of the bleeding.
I was concerned the medication wouldn't work all the way, but my pregnancy symptoms went away with the speed of light, which really reassured me. It felt so good not to be nauseous and worried all day!!
By the next evening, I was bleeding consistently and had a few clots, but it was nowhere near as much as right after I took the misoprostol. I continued to bleed pretty consistently through the next week. I had some cramping, but it was MUCH less than I expected. I believe I only had to take the oxycodone for breakthrough pain that first night/morning. It really was just like a heavy period, then it tapered off.
I had my follow-up call with the doctor, and she made sure I wasn't experiencing any side effects or problems. She asked questions about my bleeding and how I was feeling to make sure I passed the pregnancy. She also asked if I wanted to try any birth control, because PP was offering telehealth appointments, but I declined because of the issues I've had with it before. I explained I was going to use condoms every time now, because we were only using the withdrawal method before. She said that was fine, explained how to schedule a birth control consultation if I ever wanted one, and sent over a prescription for ella with a few refills. Again, she was so kind to me and put my mind at ease.
Afterwards, I was so relieved that I almost forgot about my 30 day test! I took it on June 1st, and I was sure I wasn't pregnant by then. It came out negative, and I had a call with the doctor the next day to confirm. My pregnancy and abortion honestly felt so distant at that point.
Although I felt sad and disappointed in myself that I needed an abortion, I am so glad I got one. I am also so, so thankful that I live in a state with reasonable abortion laws, and in an area where a clinic is close by. I'm also so thankful for my partner and Planned Parenthood. I also feel blessed to have had the means to get an abortion, and to have had an easy one. It wasn't nearly as scary, dramatic, or painful as I thought it would be. I've had two periods by now, too, so I have managed to stay un-pregnant! :)
I hope my happy ending gives someone hope that their abortion will be simple, too. Many people (probably mostly pro-lifers masquerading as women who've had abortions) say their abortion was traumatizing, gut-wrenching, and the most difficult experience they ever had. Mine wasn't anywhere close. I've had periods that were more painful, severe, and eventful. Really. I don't want to minimize how serious it can be, but I want every woman reading this to know that it's never as scary as you think.
If you've gotten this far, thank you for reading, and I hope I've helped to ease your mind. ❤️
submitted by jcj6 to abortion [link] [comments]

2020.07.03 09:29 SayingAndUnsaying Le Bon Motte

In the face of so many recent high profile self-immolations, I thought it might be a good time to do some musing about what this place is and what it’s good for. Apologies in advance for the rambling and the terrible organization; I pretty much always end up writing these things when I really ought to be doing something else, and wanted to put it up ASAP, so as the saying goes I didn’t have time to write a shorter post.
Our sub has an interesting history. On the one hand, we clearly exist specifically because reddit’s SSC community needed a place where we were free to speak openly about politics (and, TBH, Voldemort). On the other hand, our mission statement is ostensibly to be
a place for people who want to move past shady thinking and test their ideas in a court of people who don't all share the same biases.
I don’t think either of those really captures us. But I do think we’ve reached a point where our past is at odds with our present and, inshallah, our future.
The Practical Motte
Granted, we discuss the culture war a lot. But then you have stuff like
I could go on listing these for quite some time, (1) (2) (3) (4), etc., seriously just go look at the all-time top posts.
Is it any wonder that, when I found myself at loose ends in Hawaii, I thought “Man, I have got to tell the Motte about this!”? Though maybe that’s not a great example, because it sort of fits in with our origin story, whereas the point I’m trying to make with the others is that they don’t. And they don’t fit in with our mission statement, either. Yet they are somehow absolutely integral to what this place is.
I’ve been re-reading Neal Stephenson’s Baroque Cycle and can’t help but draw some parallels between the Motte and the Royal Society. Or perhaps some sort of enlightenment-era alchemical Hermetic order might be a better model. We’re intentionally hard to find. We shroud our identities in secret and meet underground to exchange knowledge which is either abstruse, but in which we have a shared interest, or else is outright forbidden. We put forth papers/effortposts for group consideration, analysis, and dissection. And we take great pains to avoid being outed as members of the brotherhood, because -- as on-the-nose as it is -- we have good reason to fear being burned as witches, and even talk about it in those terms.
Vitally, we have a shared (and now concealed!) esoteric literature in common, and I was amused to see Scott call it exactly that shortly after I’d started thinking of it as such. This means we enjoy a lot of shared understandings that don’t need to be constantly relitigated, such as memetic darwinism, political cynicism, and disillusionment with the Academy.
In a world where we almost can’t have real discussions with anyone else due to the sheer inferential gulf between us, we can have them here, with each other.
And we’re just dying to do so, for roughly the same reason that /atheism is a thing. Certainly we’re prone to bringing up certain red- and blackpills more often than is perhaps strictly appropriate. How can we not? We live our lives surrounded by people who are evidently insane, biting our lips, trying to smile and nod and just get through the day without going mad ourselves. So, yeah, sometimes I just need to scream, e.g., MEN AND WOMEN HAVE DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE INCENTIVES, so I come here and, pretty soon, a suitable opportunity usually presents itself. When the only thing stuck in your head is a burning need to blurt out what you truly think, it’s amazing how relevant any given conversation can seem. Hammer, nail, etc.
In some sense, then, we are necessarily a de-facto support group. It’s extremely common for me to hear about some news item all day, then cruise over to the Motte in the hope that someone else has already been galvanized into setting the record straight. Just for the sheer relief of dysphoria it brings me to see the matter presented in an informed, thoughtful, sane manner.
The Moderate Motte
We exist in a precarious balance between /SlateStarCodex on one side and /CultureWarRoundup on the other. Below us yawns the abyss of wider reddit beyond which the fell glow of general social media can be perceived flickering dimly in the darkness.
Seriously, have you ever been to reddit? I get so used to this lovely walled garden we’ve built that trying to read any thread on the front page usually results in me pulling one of these. Upon viewing Kathy Newman’s infamous interview with Jordan Peterson, my first thought was, “My God, this is the experience of years of trying to talk to people online distilled into a half-hour conversation.”
The difference is charity. There is an appalling lack of it pretty much everywhere. And this is not just tolerated, but encouraged and amplified! Go look at any other forum discussing why their outgroup says and does the things they do. At the horrific motivations they impute unto each other.
If there’s one thing we should strive not to be, it’s that. And, yes, this requires that we remain militantly on-guard against outgroup-bashing, or even outgroup-denigrating. The line between critical analysis and disparagement can be a fine one, but it absolutely must be walked if we don’t want to turn into /CWR, or if we want to maintain even any hope of diversity of thought.
The privilege we have of interacting in a space where we can pretty much trust that the people with whom we’re arguing will take the time to try to make sure they understand what we’re saying, and take care not to put words in our mouths, is quite simply priceless. And when it’s gone, I expect that it’s gone for good.
Meanwhile /SSC, once the mother country, has felt more and more like a foreign land to me with each passing month. I remember one occasion when I was about to jump into a conversation there when it hit me that I couldn’t even be forthright about my perspective on trans issues, because in that milieu it would be seen as backwards and assholeish and is explicitly proscribed at any rate. Importantly, the conversation in question had nothing to do with trans issues, and I had no intention of bringing them up, but just the realization, the sheer culture shock, stayed me. At one point /SSC was unquestionably my primary ingroup; these days it feels much more like an outgroup. It is no place for our societas eruditorum to conduct our affairs.
The Probative Motte
Another thing which unites us here is a nearly-pathological thirst for intellectual integrity, especially within our own heads. We are driven crazy by inconsistency, yet intelligent enough that we can’t help but find it everywhere. We have this maddening urge to pop the bubbles of wrong ideas even if they, and the people espousing them, are on ‘our side’. As TracingWoodgrains once put it,
We're a bunch of cranky contrarians (meta-contrarians? probably) who can't help but prod at everything whether it's a good idea or not.
We can’t rest easy maintaining beliefs that we know might not be true, that we sense we might discard if only we could encounter someone capable of engaging us, someone perhaps more informed than we are. But anyone as afflicted by this condition as the representative Motte user knows that such people are damned near impossible to find.
Now, the Motte is a precious and probably irreplaceable resource for doing exactly this. Less than it was before we lost most of our lefties, and /SSC would unquestionably be the better forum for this purpose if it hadn’t been so hamstrung -- but we don’t have /SSC any more, and the Motte is still pretty good for it.
This is where our mission statement ought to come in. We are almost uniquely suited to be a testing ground for ideas, among exactly the sort of people we’d want for the job. But we aren’t that, because we’re not built to be. Hate to say it, but look, we cannot expect to become the net’s premier platform for refining one’s beliefs when we have intentionally structured our community around the one thing universally acknowledged to be the mind-killer. To be blunt, we are suffering from an overreliance upon political discussion.
(The evaporation of many non-grey viewpoints is a problem for obvious reasons. Much has been written about it and I don’t have anything new to add, so I’ll let it pass with only a mention for the time being. But it is important enough that it does demand the mention.)
Also, I don’t know about you, but I can go days without noticing a new top-level post outside the thread, because we all know that the thread is where the action is to be had. I’ve seen good posts get more or less starved to death, where I’m sure that if they’d been erroneously posted in the thread there would have been some fantastic discussion. My only thought is that perhaps we could have a parallel non-CW thread such that there’s a comparable, if inevitably lesser, flow of new content. Standalone top-level topics miss a lot of eyeballs, but if they’re all in one place, maybe not. This is also one of the most glaring issues which would need to be addressed on any potential future platform.
What I’d like to see is an intentional culture of putting forth things we believe but are less-sure about, with the explicit understanding that we’re admitting we suspect we might be wrong. These could range from small-scale to sprawlingly open-ended. I’m working on what I hope might serve as a prototype. Working title is “Power: What is it? Who has it? What do they want?” Because, if I’m being honest with myself, it’s pretty clear that my existing mental framework on the matter is egregiously out of touch with reality. I’d like to be able to post this tomorrow; we’ll see how that goes.
But other suitable questions might be “I’ve been operating under the impression that Roe v. Wade is responsible for a big decline in violent crime; is that position supported by the evidence?” or “Is Democracy just an illusion?” or “I’m planning on homeschooling my child -- is that a mistake?”
The point is to bring our weaknesses out into the open and work to correct them. This will also go a long way toward making new blood comfortable enough to contribute.
See, one drawback of our extraordinarily-gifted contributor base is that a lot of people are too afraid to join in the project. I have been contacted by something like five lurkers who have all said that they don’t feel smart enough to contribute, even at the level of replies.
In some sense this is understandable. A selection effect is created by virtue of people mostly only responding to topics on which they’re comparatively competent; to an observer, it must seem as though we are all frighteningly well-informed about everything. To all such people reading this: I promise, we’re really not. It’s an unrealistic standard that no one could hope to meet. Just jump in. My first several posts were pretty sub-par. One learns by doing. So do!
Summary and Suggestions
All maps are wrong; some maps are useful. I contend that all current maps of the Motte are woefully inadequate and that we need to completely reframe what we’re doing and why, if we’re to have any hope of keeping it alive. Therefore, I propose the following:
The Motte is an esoteric society and must be understood as such. Within that we have three major imperatives (in no particular order):
  1. Incentivize the continued production of high-effort, high-quality submissions.
  2. Lean into our role as social club and emotional support for those dealing with the burden of verboten understanding.
  3. Serve as a crucible for refining our members’ thinking.
These things must be actively pursued, and everything else must flow from them.
As to #1, we’re doing okay, though I think we could be doing a lot better. But we’ve almost entirely failed on #3, and up to this point the second half of #2 has actually been regarded as a bad thing! Most conspicuously highlighted by the tragic exit of Qualia_of_Mercy. In retrospect, we as a community, the Motte as an institution, and I in particular failed him, and have failed many others. If you’re reading this, buddy, please forgive me. I was so fixated on #1 that I couldn’t even see #2 as a valid goal, let alone one that might at times supercede #1.
As to pursuing these things, let’s take them in numerical order.
Incentivizing quality content is really hard to do on reddit. Maybe we’ll end up somewhere else where contributors actually get some sort of perks for their contributions, but I’m not about to hold my breath for that. Instead, I want to start up a patreon and outright commission people to write good stuff. I can fund this myself if need be -- there’s no chance of actually paying people what I assume market rates are for top-shelf prose and analysis -- but it’d be cool if others chipped in. Perhaps a project for this weekend. Seriously, what is this place worth to you? If it vanished, how much would you pay to get it back? That's how I'm looking at it, anyway. [EDIT: I didn't spend nearly enough time elaborating on this; see here.]
Sometimes I expect to approach people and ask if they’re interested in formally expanding upon certain topics to which I’ve seen them allude; e.g. 2cimarafa’s passing remark about her low regard for the Constitution. But maybe we could also offer (small) cash prizes for especially good stuff that turns up in the wild, as it were.
Esoteric societies sometimes have journals. I think we should start putting out quarterly publications. I already find myself thinking stuff like “Boy, I can’t wait to see KulakRevolt’s next column.” These would also showcase what we have going on and perhaps serve as a draw for valuable newcomers, now that SSC no longer exists as a suitable attractofilter.
Also, to be frank, we need to rethink our stance on consensus-building. Not in the general case, necessarily, but we should be encouraging people to make strong arguments in long-form format, perhaps collaboratively, with an eye to being able to cite them as we have previously done with Scott’s work. The Motte has put out some really cool stuff, but how often do we -- or anyone else -- link to it as foundational material for our conversations? Where is our Meditations on Moloch? Our Neoreaction FAQ? I know that the people here are capable of turning out such things. It’s high time that we start making our own meaningful contributions to the esoteric literature, such that rat and pararat communities across the interwebs know and fear respect us, and incorporate our work into the canon.
Finally, as we bleed into imperative #2 (social club, emotional support), it’s just clear that we need different codes of conduct for different spaces. Qualia_of_Mercy should have had a place to rend his clothes and gnash his teeth. Yes, that sort of thing should be kept out of the more formal operations, but he put it where he did because he had nowhere else to put it.
To some degree we’re doing really well with the social club aspect. The Wellness Wednesday and Friday Fun threads are exactly the sort of thing we need, and the mods and contributors do a fantastic job of running them (shoutout in particular to j9461701!). In that capacity, the main adjustment to be made is just one of attitude. Let’s see this place for what it is and embrace it. And, maybe, a general/offtopic/informal thread is called for, but once again we run smack into the limitations of reddit.
Now, as for imperative #3 (i.e. what the sidebar says we are), I think we pretty much need to admit that we’re starting from square one and this is going to have to be built from the ground up. And, yes, the culture war thread is a problem. I don’t think we can just get rid of it, and anyway it’s too valuable to jettison, but it poses a direct obstacle to this whole notion of testing our ideas in an intellectually diverse environment. Yet again reddit rears its head. We can’t de-emphasize the thread, or even comparably-emphasize other threads, because of the hard limit of two stickies.
Well, what we can do is institute something like ‘Turnabout Tuesday’ where instead of arguing for our positions we argue against them. This is really intellectually healthy anyway, and might serve as a good opportunity to invite progressives into our project. “Hey, tomorrow I’m planning on ripping Western CivilizationChristianityThe Nuclear Family a new one, care to lend me a hand?” Now, that will get the ball rolling on testing our ideas. And of course everyone will be free to criticize those arguments, too. Or perhaps we might have a weekly event where user-submitted, mod-approved propositions are debated with participants randomly assigned to either side. There’s really a lot of potential in #3, and IMO the sooner we put something like this into motion, the better.
In closing, the last few weeks have served as an opportunity to do a lot of soul searching regarding this community and my relationship thereto. What is it to me, really? A bunch of pretentious internet degenerates circlejerking about social justice? And yet I keep finding phrases like ‘the light here kindled must not go out’ running through my head. As I take stock of the situation, weirdly enough, it occurs to me that somehow what I am is a patriot.
submitted by SayingAndUnsaying to TheMotte [link] [comments]

2020.06.23 19:01 dptat2 Deconstructing Catholicism: The Problem of Evil and Why "Free Will" isn't the Solution.

This is a continuation of my little series on Deconstructing Catholicism.
The problem of evil is one of the most enduring problems that confronts all religious people in some way or another. It is also called the problem of pain, the problem of suffering, or why does bad things happen to good people? Arguably, the book of Job is a biblical example of someone wrestling with this very question. For many Catholics and Christians as a whole, the problem of evil has a very easy solution, Free Will. Many apologists don't think of the problem of evil as a logical problem, but rather a rhetorical and emotional one. Brian Holdsworth, a Catholic youtuber and apologist, holds this view.
The problem can be divided into two different sets, the problem of "natural evil" like hurricanes, pandemics, and suffering as the result of natural processes, and then "moral evil," evil inflicted on people due to the immoral actions of others. Holdsworth only really addressed the moral evil part. Bart Ehrman, a former Christian, argues that solely focusing on the moral evil does not account for the widespread suffering, i.e. natural evils such as starvation. I don't intend to focus on that right now but instead on the issue of Free Will and why it really isn't an adequate response to moral evil. You may not believe in Free Will personally, but that isn't the issue here.
In a nutshell, the argument is that moral evil has to exist as a consequence of a loving God allowing us the opportunity to love him or reject him, i.e. a choice between good and evil. Thus, the existence of moral evil doesn't disprove a good and loving God, but actually affirms the existence of such. There are a few notable issues with this view, though, when you account for the christian tradition as a whole. I'd like to focus on two of them in particular.
The first issue is with the Catholic understanding of Free Will. Free Will is a nebulous concept that has been variously articulated by many scholars, but I am going to focus in particular on Aquinas since he is by far the most authoritative in this regard to the Church. For Aquinas, the Will is the Appetitus Boni, i.e. appetite for good. "Appetite" for Aquinas isn't like your appetite for food necessarily, but more of an inclination towards something. Summa Pars 1a2ae 8.1. The Will is an inclination towards goodness and the choice of evil is in fact a corruption of the will itself. The Will can only choose goodness, actual or apparent. Ibid (Citing Aristotle Phys. ii, 3 and Dionysus Div. Nom. iv). The choice between good and evil is a false choice, because in order for the Will to choose evil, it must be presented as good. Thus, it is a result of a defect in the intellect.
If the Will is an inclination towards goodness itself, how can it be free when it chooses between two things? Won't it always choose the one with the most goodness, or apparent goodness? Is that really freedom in any meaningful sense. In short, can there be Free Will without evil? According to Aquinas, yes. Freedom of Will can exist as a choice, not between good and evil, but a choice between various goods. For one example, let us assume you have to choose between two potential partners in a dating game-esque situation. You pick one, but this doesn't imply through the choice that the other is "evil" or even lacking in "goodness," the rejected partner may just not be the type of "goodness" you seek for whatever reason.
Why is this relevant for the problem of evil? Because, according to apologists, evil must exist for a good and loving God to allow for Free Will. Free Will, according to the apologist, is such a high value that God is excused for allowing evil if it cultivates Free Will. However, there is a problem with this line of argument as shown above. Free Will can exist without evil. Thus, the argument doesn't necessarily work.
Taking the argument in another direction, why would Satan, who has Free Will, rebel? Aquinas discusses this issue in his Summa as well. Summa Pars 1a 63&64. Taylor Marshall, another youtuber apologist, even wrote an article on this issue. How did Lucifer become Satan (Thomas Aquinas answers). In summary though, Satan and the demons are good insofar as they exist. Summa Pars 1a 63.4. They share the natural inclination towards goodness. Aquinas addresses the issue of whether or not the angels could have sinned at all, because by their very nature they are not fooled by "apparent goods" like you would expect to be present through the passions. (Aquinas gives an example of Adultery). He argues that there are two means to committing a mortal sin. The first is a sort of willful ignorance to choose an apparent good, Adultery, but the angels could not be fooled by this since they lack bodies and therefore passions. Instead, the fallen angles chose of good, but a good that was not in its proper order. Thus, he argues this is not a defect due to ignorance, but one of pride. Summa Pars 1a 63.1 Rp Obj. 4.
However, I think Aquinas' attempts to avoid fault with God for the fallen angels creates a seriously confusing problem which just doesn't make any sense. Why would the fallen angels choose their own goodness of pride over the Divine Will? Surely, they would know it is foolish, since they lack a lot of the intellectual limitations we have. Even though Aquinas argues it is a fault of pride, not ignorance, it is difficult to not see how it is both and how they can be meaningfully separated. It can be both a problem of pride and ignorance, as in this case. That ignorance, that defect, was there ab initio due to God's craftsmanship.
I think the apologetic response to the problem of evil has rhetorical power at first glance. The essays written on it give a confidence that it is answered without breaking a sweat. However, I think if you pull at the threads a bit and contextualize the "solution" within the wider tradition, it just does not work. There are some canned responses to this problem with their solution, but I don't think they adequately address the conflict in any meaningful sense. I'd like to also address the other "half" of the problem some other time, i.e. the problem of evil with "natural evils," but I will wait for that.

Edit: Corrected spelling errors.
submitted by dptat2 to excatholic [link] [comments]

2020.06.20 22:37 Warm-Competition1249 I don't know what to do. (long post alert)

It's become increasingly hard to stay alive as the years go on. I've spent 14 years waiting for the magical "It gets better" that everyone promises... It doesn't seem to be happening, and not for lack of trying. I've just finished writing two full pages of a note, simply detailing why I can't keep going. That doesn't even include the apologies and the messages and the goodbyes. When I finished it, I took a deep breath and thought, "What do I do now? How do I do it?" As the tears rolled down my face. So I came here.
I've been suicidal for 14 years, and I always end up going to the internet when it gets really bad. So many times, Google has directed me here. I decided it would be easier to just make an account. If I break any rules, please tell me and I'll fix it. I feel bad for posting here and adding to the well of pain, making it harder on the few who are here to help, but I have nowhere else to turn at this point. I hope you can forgive me.
For a long time, I didn't know why life was so hard for me, or why so many adults asked me if I'd been the victim of sexual assault. My mother actually burst into tears one day and said "It is 90 degrees outside, you CAN'T wear that jacket! They are going to take you away from me if you keep hiding all of your skin!" I was the only poor girl at a rich school; the other kids didn't understand me. The boys would pretend to ask me out on dates as a dare and pretend like they were vomiting if I said yes, the girls would do their unspoken Mean Girls thing where they stare me down as they walked past. Par for the course, right? Everyone gets bullied. Then came the lesbian rumors, which of course prompted the boys to "test" it. Let's just say I've had my fair share of extreme sexual harassment, bordering on assault. Then the anatomy classes compared assault victims to an old piece of tape that's lost its stick, or a chewed up piece of gum that no one wanted.
By the time I reached college I had a very negative opinion of the male species. A few horrible traumas later and I'm sitting in a therapist's office with a diagnosis of CPTSD and generalized anxiety disorder, working on memory therapy... And I start to remember my childhood for the first time. And it was polluted with frequent visits to the church basement. With the elders. And all the other little girls. Turns out I was the victim of religious cult brainwashing and torture. Yes, that's a real thing, and I battle with the programming they put in my head literally daily.
I haven't had a good life. Always waiting for the "it gets better." And better never comes.
Now, I'm 26. The stress of my life over the 26 years has destroyed my body. I have severe fibromyalgia, possibly Sjogren's Syndrome and a whole host of other issues that I can't get diagnosed because I'm too sick to work and I need money to get medical help in this country. I can hardly walk to the kitchen to maintain some semblance of blood sugar stability. I pass out if I shower while standing. Anything I eat makes me horribly sick. I'm starting to show symptoms of kidney, liver and pancreas diseases. Too sick to work, so I'm too poor to see a doctor, so I'm too sick to work. Ad infinitum. In a month, I'm going to be forced to move back in with the same family who took me to that cult every weekend.
My life will never get better. I've tried every government support program and been rejected from all of them. I cannot make it out of my family's house. That will be where I die, listening to them scream at me for not being a good Christian woman and finding a good Christian man. Scream at me for not finding a job regardless of how immobile and sick I am. Work from home jobs are a lie and working for yourself is this mythical thing that only a chosen few in thousands can effectively do, and definitely not the sick and disabled. I'd told myself that the only thing that might make life worth living is love, but who would love someone like me? Sick, damaged, carrying a host of mental disabilities and will never work again? No. No man would have patience with my trauma concerning intimacy and I would never feel safe being with a woman, because of that religious programming screaming in my head that I am evil and I will burn.
I don't know what to do. I can't keep going and I can't move in with my family. I just want to end it.
But I'm not strong enough.
submitted by Warm-Competition1249 to SuicideWatch [link] [comments]

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