Peshawar Dating Site, 100% Free Online Dating in Peshawar, IS
Free Classifieds Peshawar – Locanto™
Peshawar dating site - free online dating in Peshawar ...
Dating 35 And Over Peshawar - Free Dating Website Peshawar
Online Chat & Dating in Peshawar Meet Men & Women in ...
Date Men In Peshawar, North West Frontier - Interracial Dating
Long term relationships Peshawar Locanto™ Dating in Peshawar
Dating Girls in Peshawar (Pakistan) - Free Online Dating Site
Peshawar Free Personals - Single Women Seeking Men Peshawar
Casual encounters Railway Colony (Peshawar) Locanto™ Dating
Casual encounters in Dating Railway Colony (Peshawar) Looking for a casual relationship in the Railway Colony (Peshawar) area? If so, the Railway Colony (Peshawar) Casual encounters category is the ideal place to start your partner search. Whether you are after a one-nighter, or an ongoing friends with benefits relationship, you are likely to ... Long term relationships in Dating Peshawar. Are you single and looking for a long term relationship? On Locanto you will find attractive men and women who are also looking for a life partner. Meet singles in your city through our free online dating service and get to know the man or the woman of your life. Good luck, happy searching! Find over 4,250 free classified ads in Peshawar ads for jobs, housing, dating and more local safe free. Peshawar's best FREE dating site! 100% Free Online Dating for Peshawar Singles at Mingle2.com. Our free personal ads are full of single women and men in Peshawar looking for serious relationships, a little online flirtation, or new friends to go out with. Start meeting singles in Peshawar today with our free online personals and free Peshawar chat! Every year, hundreds of members find love online at AfroRomance. If you are searching for single men in Peshawar, we'll help you find romance! It doesn't take long when looking at the many success stories of past AfroRomance members to realise something is working with our online dating system. Let AfroRomance help you find the love of your life. 100% free Peshawar (Pakistan) online dating site for single men and women! Register at Loveawake.com Pakistani singles service without payment to date and meet singles from Peshawar Chat online in Peshawar, Pakistan. With over 485M users on Badoo, you will find someone in Peshawar. Make new friends in Peshawar at Badoo today! Mate4all.com is a FREE online dating web site for singles in Peshawar looking for the fun, dating and life partners. We have thousands of singles available in Peshawar. If you are a man seeking women in Peshawar or if you are a woman seeking hot sexy men in Peshawar then probably your search ends here. There are many free online dating sites, but Loveawake is one worth visiting. Easily navigated, Loveawake members use the site as a conduit to romance and/or flirt with ladies specifically located in Peshawar, Pakistan. Seeking Woman for Activity Partner, Casual Dating, Friendship, Serious Relationship - I am a Man looking for Buddy to develop friendship. Please help me to pass my time in a good way. I am a Govt Servant and presently available in Peshawar.
Bad History of India, the Mughals, and especially the early modern Indian economy in Steven Johnson's *Enemy of all Mankind* (2020)
2020.08.27 14:49 vesrynk45Bad History of India, the Mughals, and especially the early modern Indian economy in Steven Johnson's *Enemy of all Mankind* (2020)
After hearing an entertaining interview on the podcast Time to Eat the Dogs with Steven Johnson, concerning his new book Enemy of all Mankind, I naively anticipated a light and narrative-focused book which would nonetheless offer some interesting and decently researched contextualization of the encounter between English pirate Henry Every and a Mughal treasure ship in 1695. I did not expect Johnson’s engagement with the Indian aspects of the story to involve deep primary source reading, but upon starting the book I found that, unfortunately, his engagements with Mughal and wider Indian history are not only shallow but deeply flawed, often in basic factual terms.
For one, he refers to the Mughal dynasty as “five-centur[ies]-old” (p. 113) at the time of Every’s piratical career, a rather baffling claim I can only ascribe to possible conflation with the Ghurids. Earlier he also conflates the Ghurids with the Delhi Sultanate, which he claims Muhammad Ghuri established (p. 36). The Delhi sultanate in fact emerged as a successor to the Ghurids following both the death of Muhammad Ghuri in 1206 and a protracted contest between his slave-commanders in different regions of India. The Mughal Empire was established by Babur, who conquered a stretch of North India in 1526; if one takes up the idealized Mughal claim to Timurid dynastic continuity, one could place the dynasty’s origins in the late fourteenth century, but as far as I know this is not an approach taken in any literature. As a discrete ruling dynasty, the Mughals emerged in the sixteenth century. Even the strained Timurid timeline is nowhere close to Johnson’s five hundred years.
He also appears to think of the word ‘Mughal’ as an imperial title interchangeable with ‘king’ or ‘emperor,’ as in this line: “declare yourself emperoking/mughal” (p. 51). My thinking is that this arose from his use of European sources which refer to the Mughal emperors as ‘Grand (or Great) Mughals’, a formulation he repeats often; he also refers only to rulers as Mughals. Mughal is not at all an imperial title, but an ethnic or cultural identifier meaning ‘Mongol’ in Persian. On the theme of ethno-cultural confusions, Johnson refers to Mahmud of Ghazni as “Afghani” (p. 36). Firstly, Mahmud was of Turkic origin. Secondly, the conventional term for someone of Afghan origin is ‘Afghan’ rather than ‘Afghani’. Another odd moment worth mentioning is his description of the Mughal state as a “theocracy” (p. 8).
Beyond these basic factual errors, there are some serious issues with his representation of the role of Islam in Indian history, especially his assertion that “some” (who exactly is not made clear) call it “the most devastating genocide in world history” (p. 36): his only attempt to back up this statement is a quotation from Fernand Braudel’s A History of Civilizations (1988) which asserts that Muslim dynasties could only rule India using “systemic terror”. Johnson breezily elides the earliest caliphate with the Ghaznavids and Ghurids as representatives of Islam in general (pp. 35-36) and seems to think that ‘India’ remained totally separate from ‘Islam’ throughout history: he states that commerce on the Indian Ocean became dominated by Muslims and not Indians well into the second millennium (p. 34), apparently unable to consider that those traders could have been both. He also parrots accounts of the reigns of Mahmud of Ghazni and Aurangzeb focusing on supposed Islamic iconoclastic zeal (pp. 36, 64-67), which are by now well criticized and qualified even in more accessible works like Richard Eaton’s India in the Persianate Age (2020). All these points deserve long write-ups, but I will focus on a rather more niche aspect of Johnson’s treatment of Indian history which aggravated me, since I have been reading up on it for research: the issue of specie and the economy.
Johnson rightly mentions that India took in a huge amount of precious metals in the early modern period, with some scholars estimating around twenty percent of the world’s output from 1600-1800. However he asserts that these precious metals’ economic value was nullified in India as they were melted down to make “bracelets, brocades and other ostentatious heirlooms.” (p. 50). This phrase is a direct quotation of John Keay, a popular historian and journalist whose book on the East India Company has, according to one review, “more in common with the chronicles of Harry Flashman than with the standard academic works on the East India Company” (Ó Gráda, p. 236). In Johnson’s formulation, Indian and specifically Mughal conceptions of wealth as a measure of precious ornaments would run up against the modern economic ideas of the East India Company, a joint-stock corporation: little did the opulent court of the sultans know that the latter would transform the politics and economics of the whole world. While there is something to the idea of the Company’s novelty in terms of structure and mercantilist economic ideology in the Indian context, to support it with the claim that India simply absorbed and sat on specie in the form of baubles flies in the face of years of research on early modern Indian economic history. The immense intake of precious metals created a large moneyed economy. States minted and were engaged in the exchange and regulation of a huge number of coins; large and sophisticated financial firms centered around families operated networks of credit, trade and investment as far afield as the Russian steppe; metal currency can even be seen in the religious rites of common people.
Perhaps crucial to Johnson’s apparent ignorance of the immensely important role of specie in the huge and active economy of early modern India is his focus on the Indian Ocean, and his all-too-easy use of one apparent Hindu prohibition of seafaring to conclude that Hindus simply did not trade and that India was totally passive in terms of trade and wider economic networks (pp. 34-35). This once again ties to his strange equation of all India with the same, immutable “Hindu culture” (p. 36). While older ‘traditional’ literature treats early modern overland trade as in terminal decline, overtaken by European-dominated overseas trade by the eighteenth century, a large body of literature has argued that overland trade systems, such as the horse trade or the trade in textiles to Central Asia and Iran, retained or even expanded their importance in the early modern period.
Especially ironic given Johnson’s sharp dichotomy between pre-modern Indian/Mughal ideas of wealth and modern Company ones is that the rule of the Company in India was significantly bulwarked by the credit extended to it by Indian banking firms. Such financiers had invited Company rule in Surat in 1759 in response to their conflict with the local nawab. In the first war between the Company and the Marathas, it was these firms’ loans that allowed the supply of soldiers in the field. Decades later, Indian banks had a major stake in the invasion of Afghanistan (1839-42). Besieged in Kabul, British officer Eldred Pottinger attempted to secure cash by issuing multiple hundis (bills of exchange) worth over 1.3 million rupees to Indian treasuries to pay for a retreat to Peshawar. However the banks restricted payments into British treasuries, seeing the Kabul occupation as moribund: its failure threatened several banks with collapse. This in turn threatened the stability of colonial government at large.
The lack of up-to-date, accurate information on Indian history in Enemy of all Mankind is not all that surprising when one considers that, for a 250-odd page book, the bibliography is less than four and a quarter pages, or 69 entries, long. Many of Johnson’s claims are uncited, or at best supported by older books, often by non-specialists. As a result, every chapter focusing on India becomes a frustrating exercise in running into one error or misinterpretation after the other. Popular history can be entertaining and thought-provoking, but it must be held to a better standard.
Steven Johnson, Enemy of all Mankind: a True Story of Piracy, Power and History’s First Global Manhunt. Riverhead Books, 2020.
Aniruddha Ray, The Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526). Routledge, 2019.
Richard M. Eaton, India in the Persianate Age 1000-1765. Allen Lane, 2019.
Stephen F. Dale, Babur: Timurid Prince and Mughal Emperor 1483-1530. Cambridge University Press, 2018.
Cormac Ó Gráda, “The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company. By John Keay,” The Journal of Economic History 56, no. 1 (1996).
Jos Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire c. 1710-1780. Brill, 1995.
Lakshmi Subramanian, "Banias and the British: The Role of Indigenous Credit in the Process of Imperial Expansion in Western India in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century," Modern Asian Studies 21, no. 3 (1987).
Prasannan Parthasarathi, “Money and Ritual in Eighteenth-Century South India,” The Medieval History Journal 19, no. 1 (2016).
Scott Levi, The Bukharan Crisis: a Connected History of 18th-Century Central Asia. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2020.
Scott Levi, “The Indian Merchant Diaspora in Early Modern Central Asia and Iran," Iranian Studies 32, no. 4 (1999)
Shah Mahmoud Hanifi, “Impoverishing a Colonial Frontier: Cash, Credit, and Debt in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan,” Iranian Studies 37, no. 2 (2004).
2020.08.08 06:55 mathfem[EVENT] Afghan Military Modernization Update
The modernization of the Afghan army, begun last year, has started to bear fruit. Many of our men are now able to competently use the new weapons bought from Germany, and have adopted the tactics taught to them by German trainers. While we are still too poor to afford modern weapons in large quantities, the presence of some modern artillery, machine guns and tanks within our army will make a big difference against enemies that lack them >! like Turkestan !<. However, despite the presence of much new equipment, they were still be parts of the army using old equipment dating back to the Third Anglo-Afghan War and earlier. By mid-1938, we expect all infantry divisions to have modern equipment, the armoured squadrons to be fully equipped, and half the artillerymen to have modern atrillery pieces.
Our regular army has 60 000 soldiers in it. This is divided into:
3 infantry divisions of 14 000 men each. These infantry divisions are equipped with semi-automatic rifles, hand grenades, and machine guns.
4 cavalry brigades of 2500 men each. The cavalry has been the branch of the army most resistant to modernization, and so has not been prioritized in terms of the allocation of new equipment.
the Royal Afghan Armoured Brigade, made up of 2000 men and containing 5 tank squadrons of 5 light tanks each and 10 armoured car squadrons of 5 armoured cars each.
three artillery brigades consisting of 2000 men each, and each equipped with 17 mortars, 25 howitzers, 40 anti-tank guns and 40 anti-air guns each together with an assortment of old artillery pieces from the Third and Fourth Anglo-Afghan wars
In addition to modernization of the front-line units themselves, much effort has been put into modernizing our supply train. Civilian trucks have been purchased for logistical use, and ammunition and other supplies have been stockpiled both in Kabul as well as in other bases throughout the country. Futher improvements on the Peshawar-Kabul-Herat Road and the Eurasian Railroad will surely help the logistical situation even more.
2020.08.07 00:54 mathfem[EVENT] Afghanistan Econ Post 1937
1937 Budget (Note: I had to break the sheet to utilize the 5% interest refinancing of Afghanistn's loans. Once a sheet has been uploaded that will allow the use of non-bank loans, I will switch to a new sheet.)
Afghanistan has been wanting to modernize its military and promote industrialization for quite some time, but has been trapped by the large debt we incurred during the conquest of Peshawar. Since refinancing our loans, we have freed up large parts of our budget to spend on military modernization and economic development. We even expect to be able to repay a small portion of our debt.
While the Eurasian railroad is still far from completion, one part of the project of interest to Afghanistan has been completed: the short spur line from the Transcaspian railroad in Turkestan over the border to Herat. While the tracks will be owned by the Afghan branch of the Eurasian Railroad, the spur will be built to the Russian gauge so that we can make use of rolling stock from the existing Transcaspian Railroad. Construction has begun on the Eurasian railroad itself from Herat both East towards Mazari Sharif and West towards Iran, but this line is mostly useless for now. As requested by Germany, an oil refinery in Herat is under construction, and is expected to be complete by early 1938. This refinery will take oil from central asia azerbaijan (imported by rail) and refine it into diesel and gasoline for local consumption. Afghanistan is too far away from existing oil wells for this refinery to realistically produce oil for export outside of central asia, but oil consumers in Punjab and Khorasan may find it more convenient to buy from the Herat refinery than from exisring refineries in the Persian Gulf. Most importantly, thus refinery allows our military and those of our allies access to local production of a strateguc resource.
The Shibar Pass Road
Much government infrastructure has been dedicated to the construction of the Shibar Pass Road. When complete (expected completion date 1938 as IRL), this road will allow trucks to travel from Peshawar in the East to Herat in the West via Kabul. This road will allow connections between the Indian railroad network in Peshawar to the Eurasian Railroad and the Russian railroad network via the Transcaspian Railway.
Government-sponsored Import Substitution
The cities of Peshawar and Quetta already had some light industry under British rule. However, upon conquest of these cities by Afghanistan, the new barriers between these cities and Punjabi and Sindhi markets caused many of these industries to be abandoned. Industrial development of these two cities would continue to be reliant on Indian markets (after all, both cities were still connected to India by rail), and would be slow without guarantees of long-term peace with the Union of India. Similar considerations underly industrial development in Herat. While the railroad has reached Herat this year, any industries which rely on Turkestani imports or markets could easily be jeopardized by the fragility of peace in the region (especially as Russia has announced ambitions to reconquer Turkestan). However, the Afghan government has provided funds to subsidize some small-scale industrial initiatives: small enough to profitable serving only the local market. These include tanneries, wool carding and weaving mills, sawmills processing lumber from the forests of the Hindu Kush, factories producing wooden household goods, etc. All these industries are targeted because they produce goods currently imported but use locally-produced raw materials. These industries are expected to be built in the railroad-connected cities of Peshawar, Herat and Quetta and the capital city of Kabul. Mazari Sharif, Kunduz, and Kandahar are secondary targets for industrialization.
Preliminary surveys done by the British decades ago suggest that Afghanistan likely has much mineral wealth buried beneath its surface. However, the exact locations of deposits are still unknown. Thus, the Afghan government is looking to partner with Germany to do a proper geological survey of the lands around the route of the Eurasian Railroad. While most of the industries targeted for development will be strictly import-substituion, mining and fossil fuels are sectors in which exported-oriented industries are expected to be profitable.
2020.07.25 01:07 closingfast[Diplomacy] EMSCO's Eurasian Aerospace Defense Command or EURAD
With the Joint CIS Air Defence System now more or less obsolete or infeasible to continue now that CSTO has effectively ceased to exist; and with foreign aggression a serious threat to all of our nations, it is time to establish, as EMSCO's first unified military system, EURAD--the Eurasian Aerospace Defense Command. EURAD will have sole responsibility for air defense, early warning, and interception/military air traffic control management in the EMSCO area, consisting of all full member states of EMSCO. Members of EURAD will be the following:
People's Republic of China
Organizationally, EURAD will be headed by a four-star PLA general, with the deputy commander rotating through all the other participants. This is not meant to place China above the other nations per se, but rather more an acknowledgement that China is the primary provider of infrastructure for air defense and occupies by far the largest territory. The overall command will be administered by an Air Defense Committee set up under the EMSCO council. All the air defense systems will be supported by ballistic missile early-warning satellites built by the PLA--which intends to share substantial satellite assets with EMSCO partners [more to come on that later]. Each country will operate the following as part of EURAD:
Rotate 48 fighters Shenyang1
200x J-7, 100x J-11
All long-range in inventory incl. 2 S-400 + 2 S-500
4 early warning radars4
Rotate 24 Su-272
1 early warning radar
48x PLAAF J-16
2 early warning radars
24x PLAAF J-113
1 PLA radar unit [EL/M-2080C], plus 2 PLA bases3
1 early warning radar
2 HQ-9A systems
24x PLAAF J-11
6 KS-1A systems
1 early warning radar
24x PLAAF J-11
3 HQ-9A systems
1 early warning radar
24x PLAAF J-11
1 HQ-9A system
48 fighters from a variety of EMSCO states will be on-duty in Shenyang [also the site of our foreign training institute, where the pilots involved can receive instruction and training] to promote cooperation between EMSCO air forces and enhance force readiness and cohesion; in addition to performing mundane service as interceptors in the region.
The Su-27/Su-30/J-11/J-16 will be provided by a rotation of EMSCO nation's air forces.
Uzbekistan has already allowed the PLA a base, from which the EURAD contingent we are providing will operate. Pakistan has already allowed the PLAAF two bases in Pakistan, at Gwadar and Peshawar, which will be home to a variety of PLAAF and PLANAF aircraft detailed in a separate post.
The exact radar to be used has not yet been determined, though numerous possibilities exist. It will be able to both detect incoming ballistic missiles and also medium-to-high altitude aircraft. Additional radars with shorter range and higher frequencies, including those already extant, will be incorporated into the EURAD defense network. Long-range SAMs of older vintage will also be added in.
The following equipment will be transferred from China along with support and training to EURAD component commands:
Received from China as part of EURAD
4 HQ-9A, 1 EL/M-2080C early warning radar
6 HQ-9A, 1 EL/M-2080C early warning radar
12 JL-10, 2 HQ-22
12 JL-10, 2 HQ-22
4 HQ-9A systems, 48 F-7 upgrades to Lancer-B standard
24 F-7 upgrades to Lancer-B standard, BVR missiles, 2 HQ-9A systems
1 EL/M-2080C; 8 JF-17
1 EL/M-2080C; 2 HQ-9A system
12 JF-17; 1 HQ-9 system
Subcommands will be based at: Mandalay, Southeast Asia Air Defense Ulaanbataar, North Asia Air Defense Fuzhou, East Asia Air Defense Karachi, South Asia Air Defense Aktau, Central Asia Air Defense While foreign deployments are expected to begin almost immediately on all parts, it will take approximately four years for the entire EURAD system to become operational. This may not also be the final version that EURAD evolves into--some of the equipment assigned now may be gone by the time the system is online, and some aspects may be negotiated in or out of. Nevertheless, it provides a promising baseline for a system that can ultimately protect EMSCO nations from all potential adversaries. Funding will initially be provided by China for this effort until a EMSCO funding mechanism can be agreed to at a later date. Map of coverage, approximate https://www.scribblemaps.com/maps/view/EMSCO_EURAD_network/6tW3vfjYuU
2020.07.19 20:19 Bevans-12[MODPOST] India in WeltkriegPowers
The Indian Subcontinent, 1936
Following severe losses in the Weltkrieg, British garrisons in the Raj were insufficient to deal with the surge of pro-independence Swaraj protests which swept India - particularly in the Bengal region. This was conducted largely by disparate nationalist and Marxist groups sensing a key opportunity to exploit British weakness and finally secure the independence of their long-humiliated India. In a panicked haze, the British Government in London passed emergency legislation - the Government of India Act, 1919. Whilst the measures taken by the act - largely by implementing more autonomy for the Indian citizens of the Raj, and lending them more participation in the Government of the Raj, the Act did little to satiate the radical tendencies of the nationalist and Marxist rebels - who sought one thing only; independence.
Whilst the Government of India Act made some crucial progress in the governance of India, this was largely ruined by the Amritsar Massacre of April, 1919. This was to prove a flashpoint for a widespread Indian revolt. With the British government still fighting against Germany in Continental Europe, colonial reinforcements were not forthcoming. Governor General Rufus Isaacs was forced to declare a state of emergency. The one thing the colonial government had in its favor was that the rebels were disorganized groups and interests who fought against each other as much as against the British. This changed in 1921.
Fearing that an official end to the war with Germany would bring the reinforcements Isaacs so desperately needed, the Indian National Congress formed a coalition that brought together Muslims, Marxists, and Nationalists, and with the much needed blessing of spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi. It is at this point that the revolt transitioned into a formal civil war. The INC proved a sorely-needed organizing force that was able to rapidly mobilise militias and push the British out of Bengal, and then push into Central India over the next several years. However, the Coalition had its periods of intense instability, most famously during the ‘Red Summer’ of 1922; when socialist rebels in Gujarat executed the Maharajah of Gwalior along with most of his family. Until that point, the INC had been attempting to negotiate with the Indian princes and zamindars, to prove they had nothing to fear from the revolution. The execution, however, instilled enough fear that many princes turned to the British for protection - especially in the South, with Mysore, Travancore and Hyderabad increasingly falling to British influence as the civil war progressed. In response to this shift in alignment, the socialists of the INC led a retaliatory campaign across the Central and Eastern India, despite Gandhi’s explicit denouncement of their actions. Palaces were ransacked and lands taken forcibly from the wealthy, and the INC was forced to go along with the idea lest their coalition crumble). Many dispossessed princes fled to the British strongholds in Delhi and Bombay, pledging their wealth to the British cause and revitalizing the British resistance for the next several years. This greatly emboldened the British, and led to them being able to largely ‘hold the line’ against INC radicals in Central India
The British Revolution of 1925 was a golden opportunity for the INC rebels; the British, already weakened by this Colonial civil war, now faced a full-scale revolution at home. As the Empire’s authority collapsed globally, Governor-General Isaacs believed the end was nigh. Despite this however, the INC was crippled by an overwhelming wave of internal disputes, disorganisation, and a general chaos. The Marxists were seen brawling with Muslims in the streets of Dhaka, and conservatives increasingly entered into fierce disputes with the leadership of the INC. The fledgling rebellion, now officially terming themselves the ‘Republic of India’ (or Azad Hind) was paralysed by vicious internal dissent. Whilst this opportunity was golden, it was left untouched. A minor offensive was performed by the INC, however their disorganised and ideologically divided militias advanced only a meagre amount compared to their potential. Capturing territories in Central India up to Kanpur and the outskirts of Lucknow, the offensive was disappointing - as Delhi had been the vastly over ambitious goal. The British, backed by well funded armies and mercenaries funded by the wealth of the Princely States, managed to hold their historical seat of power in the subcontinent, Delhi - and crucially retain control of the economic hub of the Raj, Bombay. Whilst the Revolution of 1925 weakened the British hold on the Princely States to the extent to which some were able to assert de jure independence as distinct Kingdoms, the Raj nevertheless did not meet their expected doom in 1925
Meeting in the divided city of Lucknow in 1927, the Governor-General Isaacs and Provisional President Sardar Patel signed an official ‘temporary’ ceasefire, expected to last around six months. Whilst the INC leadership declared that they would liberate the oppressed Indians in Delhi, Gujarat, and Bombay, but to date no action, aside from minor skirmishes, has taken place. Internal divisions in the Republic of India (or ‘Azad Hind’) were intensified as disagreements arose concerning what form of government the new nation would adopt, and specifically the role that religion would play. Would this be a Socialist Nation, a Hindu Nation, or a Secular Republic? Resentment by Muslims and Sikhs against clear Hindu dominance and policies grew rapidly in this period, which historians now recognise as the ‘Years of Turmoil’. This resentment manifested into protests, and eventually riots.
This reached a fever pitch in 1931, with the Purge of Dhaka. Muslims in East Bengal, outraged by perceived Hindu dominance, took to the streets in one of the largest demonstrations in Indian history. Radical Hindu nationalists quickly responded; bussing in their own counter-protestors. The demonstration quickly turned violent, and in the following hours hundreds of Muslims were slaughtered by armed Hindu protestors (it would perhaps be more appropriate to describe them as Militias). Eventually, the army was sent in to restore order, however Azad Hind remained perhaps forever scarred by this incident.
Leaders of the All India Muslim League, headed by Jinnah, took that as a clear indication there would be no place for them in Azad Hind. Muhammad Ali Jinnah organised clandestine meetings with Rufus Isaacs, and prominent reformer Ganga Singh. Known as the ‘1932 Lahore Resolution, Jinnah announced shortly after his meeting that he would return to British India, following securing promises from Singh and Isaacs regarding significant Muslim autonomy in the provinces of Punjab, Balochistan and Sindh. He encouraged Muslims in Bengal and other areas in Azad Hind to follow his lead; declaring that the Republic was not a suitable, and not a safe, home for them. Whilst many did heed his call, some elected to stay.
In India, there is an uneasy, unstable peace. The borders between Azad Hind, the now independent Princely Kingdoms, and the Raj remain violent, with regular skirmishes between militias and the respective armies of both sides.
Capital: New Delhi Head of State: Emperor George V Head of Government: Viceroy Rufus Isaacs (Deceased) Government Structure: Colonial Authoritarian Monarchy
Summary: The Raj has suffered immensely over the past two decades, losing the vast majority of its territory. Delhi, Bombay, Agra, Lucknow and Indore remained British, but Bengal, the Central Provinces, Bihar, Nagpur, and many, many more crucial territories were lost. Whilst still technically a Crown Colony, the British Government in Exile exerts minimal influence over its remaining territory in the Raj - Canada does hold some influence, however de facto authority in British India unquestionably resides in Delhi. With the lack of Authority from London, many traditional practices - such as the appointment of new Viceroy, have been made redundant. It is due to this fact that Rufus Isaacs was Viceroy for 15 years, in which he miraculously secured the survival of the Empire’s presence on the Indian Subcontinent. His rule was brought to an abrupt end with his death on December 30th, 1935, at 11:55pm. As the New Year dawns, the Raj faces a crisis, as a provisional government is hastily assembled of senior civil servants to govern India until a new Viceroy is chosen and appointed. The Reformer, Ganga Singh, could be chosen. Or, perhaps the hardliner, iron-fisted Charles Tegart, who would surely secure order in the Raj.
Politically, the Raj is somewhat cohesive under British rule, however suffers from some divides by Reformers in favour of far more democracy, representation and fairer economic policies - led by Maharaja Ganga Singh and AIML leader Jinnah, and supported by some of the more liberal British and Indian civil service. Tegart, however, represents the more firmly pro-Empire, and pro-Colonial faction, who believe the only way to regain control over India is through brute force.
Economically, the Raj is generally doing about as well as can be expected, with the loss of its agricultural heartlands in Bengal undoubtedly affecting its economy, compounded by near collapse of the Empire. Whilst recovery was made in the ensuing years, the Raj has a long way to go before it can proclaim economic success. However, the technological, organisational and bureaucratic supremacy the nation enjoys over its rival to the East will undoubtedly aid it.
Capital: Kolkata Head of State: President Sardar Patel Head of Government: see above Government Structure: Federal Presidential Constitutional Republic
Summary: Azad Hind, or ‘Free India’, is the nickname usually lent to the independent Indian state, who several years ago freed itself from the oppressive shackles of British Rule. Dominated by the INC, and guided by the wise leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Republic of India successfully asserted its independence, coming to control vast swathes of Indian territory - from Bengal to Nagpur. Whilst it was checked in its advances toward Delhi and Lucknow, it nevertheless remains that generally its revolt was successful, considering the challenges it faced. Under the leadership of Patel, the Republic of India has undergone a decade of rather turbulent political circumstances - accentuated by the ‘Muslim Flight’ of 1932 following the Purge of Dhaka, and Jinnah’s Lahore Resolution. The Socialists (Syndicalists, Communists, and Agrarians alike), under the banner of the ‘Hindustan Socialist Republican Alliance’, conduct withering attacks almost daily on the INC leadership, labelling them as puppets of imperialists for not fully doing away with capitalism. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu Nationalist (verging on Legionnaire-ist) party prevalent in many Hindu majority areas of Azad Hind, also levies frequent attacks on the INC, especially over its attempts at reconciliation with the AIML and Indian Muslims. India is beset by political turmoil, instability and chaos - which will need a great leader, someone perhaps greater than Patel, to overcome.
Internationally, Azad Hind aligns itself closely with the Third Internationale, united in a shared vision of anti-imperialism and egalitarianism, with shared enemies in the remnants of the British Empire. It also finds close ties with Japan, with its pan-Asianist dream and “anti-colonialism”, the Land of the Rising Sun is an ally of convenience for Azad Hind.
Economically however, the Republic of India is suffering. Whilst it initially attracted strong investments from sources such as the Commune of France and Empire of Japan, these rapidly dwindled due both the political instability of Azad Hind, the emerging corruption problem, and the massive amounts of red tape, regulations and licenses needed to open and run businesses, and make investments. These were implemented by the INC, under the ‘License Raj’ system, meant to appease the socialist elements of the Indian independence movement. Whilst it had noble goals, it was executed poorly. Azad Hind also faces issues of a lack of investment in Education, Research & Development, and a fledgling industrial sector.
Capital: Madras City Head of State: Emperor George V Head of Government: Chief Minister Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Government Structure: Unitary Parliamentary Semi-Constitutional Monarchy
Summary: The Madras Presidency finds itself in a rather unusual situation. For decades, it sat as the seat of British power in South East India, with its rich agricultural lands producing riches for the Empire. As the Raj began to fall apart, the Madras Presidency, previously directly ruled by the British, found itself in a peculiar position - disconnected from the Raj, yet still loyal.
During the Revolution, the Madras Region found itself regularly sieged by Pro-INC protestors, with Madras being arguably one of the birthplaces of the 'Home Rule' Movement. Despite this, an increasingly popular anti-Brahmin movement, led by the Tamil Justice Party, seemed to sow deep conflict in the Independence movement in the Madras Region. Protests against the Raj turned into protests against Brahmin dominance, with the INC in the region turning its attention to the uppity Tamils instead. Sensing an opportunity, the British installed the leader of the Justice Party, and staunch pro-Tamil, pro-Dravidian leader Periyar E. V. Ramasamy as Chief Minister in 1928, accompanied by a package of extensive democratic reforms, such as a fully fledged Parliament and a degree of constitutionality.
Currently, Madras remains in a near perpetual state of stasis; whilst still de jure British, and for now aligned toward the Raj, the ruling Tamil party increasingly seeks to form its own Dravidian state, only kept down by British threats of withdrawing protection, and their fear of an Indian invasion that would once again bring Brahmin domination of Tamils. Economically, Madras prospers due to its fertile and bountiful agricultural lands, and the investments that have were made by Germany, largely due to the German-controlled port of Pondicherry surrounded by Madras.
Capital: Hyderabad Head of State: Nizam Osman Ali Khan Head of Government: Prime Minister Kishen Pershad Government Structure: Unitary Absolute Monarchy
Summary: The Hyderabad Deccan, whilst at first declaring full autonomy from the Raj following the INC revolt, has suffered immensely; loosing a majority of its land to the upstarts in Azad Hind, with many pro-INC protests taking place before the Hyderabad army was overrun by the new Republic of India. Only at the last minute, with emergency reinforcements arriving from the Raj and other mercenaries hired by the Nizam, was Hyderabad City saved from certain doom.
Hyderabad now sits at a precipice. Whilst ruled by the benevolent Osman Ali Khan, with riches unmatched by any man on the planet, the Deccan struggles with the constant threat of invasion by Azad Hind. Whilst a strong Raj garrison is stationed in Hyderabad, making it all but a British puppet. Despite these challenges however, the threat from Azad Hind has united aristocrats around Ali Khan's rule, meaning a united front against any possible Marxist uprisings. Undoubtedly, the peasantry, with enough urging, could bring a second Hyderabadi rebellion, and finally integrate into Azad Hind.
Capital: Mysore City Head of State: Maharaja Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV Head of Government: Dewan Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya Government Structure: Unitary Authoritarian Monarchy
Summary: Whilst initially supportive of Indian independence, breaking away from British influence in the 1920s, Krushna Raja Wadiya was increasingly dismayed by the events in Gwalior, fearing for his power. Mysorian troops were sent north to aid in repelling socialist rebels, and the Maharaja looked to the Raj increasingly for protection. In exchange for independence, the British have significant economic, political and military influence in Mysore. The Maharaja himself is a popular figure in his Kingdom, having allowed numerous democratic and social reforms, much to the dismay of the conservative British civil service, who hold significant influence in Mysore through the presence of General Douglas Gracey, a prominent commander in the Mysorian Army.
However, despite Mysore's social and economic progress, not all is well in the nation. The Kingdom has a heavy socialist presence, under the leadership of P. Krishna Pillai. If tensions with Azad Hind increase enough, a strike could be organised. If the subcontinent is once again plunged into war, and proper steps are not taken, revolution could even come about in the ancient Kingdom of Mysore.
Capital: Thiruvananthapuram Head of State: Maharaja Sree Chithira Thirunal Head of Government: Dewan Muhammad Habibullah Government Structure: Unitary Absolute Monarchy
Summary: The Kingdom of Travancore has experienced much of the same history as Mysore, and has aligned closely with what many international geopolitical observers see as its 'big brother', the Kingdom of Mysore. Whilst it is generally safer from the threat of Azad Hind due to its south westerly location, the small Kingdom nevertheless has a significant pro-INC movement, with a particular hotbed for socialist agrarian activity in the Kingdom.
However, Maharaja Thirunal has largely managed to stave off the socialist threat through his incredibly popular social and economic reforms, inspired by those implemented in Mysore. Great steps have been taken to tackle caste issues, complimented by a reformist Prime Minister. Perhaps in the future, Travancore can begin to move past its absolutism and to a more democratic system.
Capital: Colombo Head of State: King George V Head of Government: Governor Reginald Edward Stubbs Government Structure: Colonial Absolute Monarchy
Summary: Whilst Ceylon avoided the viciousness of the instability of the 1920s, it still experienced a bout of Sinhalese uprisings in response to that of their Indian brothers, however these were rather muted compared to the degree of the mainland, and were easily put down by British colonial garrisons, along with a package of piecemeal reforms. The unrest reached a peak in 1926, when a riot killed a prominent British civil servant in Ceylon. However, calling the Ceylonese events a rebellion would be inaccurate, as it in no way replicated the events on the mainland.
The current Governor-General, Reginald Stubbs, is a brutal military-man, prepared to do whatever is necessary to protect British rule in Ceylon. Accusations have been levied by Sinhalese independence activists upon Stubbs of torture, village burning, and crop sabotage.
Capital: Kathmandu Head of State: King Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah Head of Government: Prime Minister Juddha Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana Government Structure: Unitary Absolute Monarchy
Summary: Nepal, the Hermit Kingdom, remains a quiet area of Asia. Whilst they responded to help their British Allies during the 1920s troubles, by seizing, occupying and "protecting" the Kingdom of Sikkim. It remains, as it has done for centuries, under the tight rule of the Rana Dynasty, with the King as a mere figurehead. The Rana Dynasty are solid allies of Britain, and will come to the Raj's should they require it.
However, significant tension exists between Nepal and Azad Hind - largely owing to Sikkim, which the Republic sees as its rightfully territory. Democratic and Communist opposition exists in Nepal, under the leadership of Praja Parishad, heavily oppressed. However, with enough funding and support from Azad Hind, Nepal could become a pro-Azad Hind democratic nation, reformed and supportive of Indian independence.
Capital: Kabul Head of State: King Mohammed Zaher Shah Head of Government: Prime Minister Mohammad Hashim Khan Government Structure: Unitary Absolute Monarchy
Summary: Afghanistan was always a troubled region for the British to maintain control. This fact was only intensified with the instability and turmoil experienced by the Empire in the post-war period. In the midst of the Weltkrieg, the Afghani Emir was assassinated, and his son launched yet another war against Britain on the 6th of May 1919. Distracted with the Great War, the British, rapidly facing defeat on the Continent, agreed to fully withdraw from the country. The Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between Afghanistan and British India, and the Afghans agreed to adopt a policy of strict neutrality in regard to the Weltkrieg. By 1923, a constitution was drawn up and the long process of modernization began, with questionable results. The newly crowned King was deposed by a revolt from Afghani tribesmen angry at his attempts to do away with centuries-old traditions, forcing him into exile by the end of the 1920s. He was replaced by King Nadir Shah, who kept continuing his reforms, while at a more acceptable pace to conservative tribes. During the British Revolution, Afghanistan sensed a golden opportunity, and quickly mobilised. They were able to seize much of the province of Peshawar, formerly part of British India. On November 8, 1933, Nadir Shah was assassinated, and his son Mohammed Zaher Shah inherited the throne. Despite lingering resentments among tribal leaders, there is no sign of turmoil for the country in the immediate future.
2020.07.17 00:30 Erhard_Eckmann[Event] Counter-Terrorism Law
Beginning with Anti-Corruption reforms, Pakistan's military has slowly been removed from the pedestal of power in Pakistan and being replaced with the brand new Ministry of Public Security. While the military loses power over interior management and has been refocused and professionalization into a modern armed forces, the Ministry of Public Security has quickly risen as the most powerful institution in Pakistan's government by its jurisdiction over essentially the people of Pakistan, matters of intelligence, internal security and much more. Pakistan has struggled in the past with a history of terrorism and insurgent separatist and ethnic movements. While the military steps down to focus on their development, large questions have remained about who will or should take their place, what sort of power will they have, and how could they effectively maintain the stability of Pakistan. The Counter-Terrorism law was largely passed as a reason to formalize the rise of the Ministry of Public Security and assign them specific responsibilities and rights over governance of the population and security of the national identity. The major leftist parties in government pushed it through as a reason to maintain Pakistan's image, but critics have voiced their concern about the law casting an authoritarian cloud over the country, and giving excessive power over managing the public opinion.
Citizen Registration and Foreigner Registration
Currently Pakistan uses a Computerized National Identity Card System called the Smart National Identity Card. The Smart National Identity Card essentially has a digital chip embedded in it that holds onto specific identifying information including pension disbursement, participation in social and financial programs, voting identification, and of course personal information like name, height, weight, address, but notably religion and ethnicity. Currently the Smart National Identity Card is issued at 18 years of age and is required to do a variety of things necessary for life: voting, opening and using a bank account, obtaining a passport, purchasing land or vehicles, purchasing a plane or train ticket, obtaining a mobile phone and SIM card, obtaining utilities, college admission, getting a loan, setting up a business, and formal employment. While before not much attention was paid to ethnicity, religion, and address; that will be changed. Now, to purchase or rent property, the individual must register their status on the property with the local National Police Bureau. The National Police Bureau will be keeping a national database of the residences of individuals. When a new family member is added to the family, the National Police Bureau must be contacted to add them to the property registration and change their information in the Smart National Identity Card database. But most importantly, when citizens are looking to move they have to inform the National Police Bureau they are looking to purchase/rent a specific property, and the National Police Bureau will have to decide whether whether to approve or deny the move. They will note the request on the citizen's accounts and keep the former addresses listed, and print a form of their decision to provide to the property negotiator or developer of approval/rejection. So that if a citizen ever needs to be located if they are missing, or a body has been found, or if they are under suspicion for a crime, the National Police Bureau, or other agencies in the Ministry of Public Security will be able to locate them. Visa-free nations will be completely exempt from the following Foreigner Registration regime. Nations on Electronic Travel Authorization or visa regimes will have to inform their citizens travelling to Pakistan that they will be required to register their presence within 24 hours of arrival at the National Police Bureau, or approved hotels with NPB staff. The registration will be linked to their passport number to verify the location of the stay. ETA and visa applications should already cover where the foreigner plans to go and what they plan to do. If a tourist plans to leave the municipality or changes location of residence during stay, the NPB will have to be informed in the destination local area within 24 hours. As foreigners do not have a Smart National Identity Card, their passport number will be shared to the system from the National Customs and Border Protection Agency, along with mandatory fingerprints for all visitors at the border, and the image taken of the person by the NCBPA. The NCBPA will log national entry information, while the NPB will log residence information during stay.
The Counter-Terrorism Law called for budget allocation to a secret program called PakiNet to set up a vast network of CCTV cameras across the entire country to engage in the monitoring of citizens, described by the budget proposal to be for "ensuring lawful behavior." The project proposal was added to the law by the National Police Bureau and the Intelligence Bureau so that it will be run and maintained by the NPB, but access permissions will be extended to the NPB. The National Police Bureau will connect this to the already underway national highway camera system, which will become part of PakiNet. PakiNet will utilize the same AI properties that the highway camera system had to be able to identify license-plates and enforce traffic laws. However the features will be extended to include facial recognition features of China's SkyNet which will allow the system to eventually process the public appearance of every Pakistani within moments as they move within camera's view. On the highways, the same will be done for drivers of vehicles for easier identification using pictures on their Smart Cards or for foreigners upon legal entry into the country. Notifications on the system will pop up warning of unrecognized individuals which will screenshot and alert NPB authorities to determine who the individual is and how they got into Pakistan. The roll out process for this will be gradual due to the length of time it will take starting in large population centers in the following order: 2021
Dera Ghazi Khan
Percent of Population Coverage
Pakistan's Ministry of Public Security will work alongside China's Ministry of State Security to acquire pieces of their software to include its features in Pakistan's program, with a prospective end date in 2025 with full serviceability. This project is proposed to cost $3 Bn to implement across Pakistan.
PEMRA is Pakistan's authority on media regulation for print and electronic media, issuing licenses to operate for distributors. The Counter-Terrorism Law has given PEMRA the new responsibility of reviewing all released media before being published. It will be the responsibility of PEMRA to determine whether cinema, news broadcasts, etc are suitable for public viewing in Pakistan. Justified by terrorist use of LiveLeak and YouTube to film their escapades, Pakistan's government has taken a new step to establish its control over media in Pakistan. PEMRA will be directed to edit publications that are critical of Pakistan's government and public institutions, as well as general problems in Pakistani society. This was done to promote stability within Pakistan and create a more general unified message from all media outlooks in Pakistan that the nation is rapidly advancing towards the first world. By preventing publications of political dissent, terrorism, and major fiascos that are not approved by the government, they will never reach the public media and then will not be given attention internationally unless directed by the government. Now PEMRA will be giving out licenses for journalists to operate, and will require that one be held for the publication of material, including foreign journalist access to Pakistan will be limited by these new regulations. Effectively, this gives Pakistan's government control over what is allowed to be in the media and the public sphere without necessarily having to create public news agencies to be the government's mouthpiece, although is still likely to occur anyways. Future references of Baluchistan ethnic issues or former separatism will now no longer be approved, or will be extremely edited at the least, and the same will be carried over across the rest of the country to create the unified and stable image. Additionally, this will also be used to enforce Sunni Islamic ideals in the country by selecting information in line with local Sunni interpretation of the Quran, which will make it easy for authorities to deem on religious grounds that media cannot be shared.
2020.07.08 07:25 herbalpak2At Vigrx Plus »03009570090»in Peshawar Islamabad Vigrx Plus Advantages And Disadvantages
At Vigrx Plus »03009570090»in Peshawar Islamabad Vigrx Plus Advantages And Disadvantages At Vigrx Plus »03009570090»in Peshawar Islamabad Vigrx Plus Advantages And Disadvantages From »USA»Vigrx Plus in Pakistan »03009570090» At VigRX Plus Official⋆ Website ⋆ VigRaX Plus In Pakistan Rs.4500 Availability: In Stock Cash on Delivery in All Over Pakistan 03009570090, +923009570090 Whatsapp +923009570090 Read More Detail Open This Link- https://herbalpakistan.pk/product/vigrx-plus-in-pakistan/ https://preview.redd.it/qxwyw20pjk951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=68c9e1e2bee473c9449207ac64ff25ecc0b01f0d Tags: Vigrx Plus Advantages And Disadvantages, Vigrx Plus Age Limit, Vigrx Plus And High Blood Pressure, Vigrx Plus At Walmart, Vigrx Plus Available In Pakistan, Vigrx Plus Bd, Vigrx Plus Before And After, Vigrx Plus Benefits, Vigrx Plus Benefits In Urdu, Vigrx Plus Buy In Pakistan, Vigrx Plus Cap, Vigrx Plus Capsule, Vigrx Plus Capsule Price In Pakistan, Vigrx Plus Clicks, Vigrx Plus Code Verify, Vigrx Plus Composition, Vigrx Plus Cost, Vigrx Plus Coupon Code, Vigrx Plus Customer Review, Vigrx Plus Cvs, Vigrx Plus Delay Spray, Vigrx Plus Details, Vigrx Plus Discount, Vigrx Plus Discount Code, Vigrx Plus Does It Work, Vigrx Plus Dosage, Vigrx Plus Effects, Vigrx Plus Effects Permanent, Vigrx Plus Enlargement, Vigrx Plus Eu Formula, Vigrx Plus Expiry Date, Vigrx Plus Fda, Vigrx Plus Fda Approved, Vigrx Plus Formula, Vigrx Plus In Karachi, Vigrx Plus In Pakistan, Vigrx Plus Official, Vigrx Plus Online, Vigrx Plus Online In Pakistan, Vigrx Plus Price, Vigrx Plus Price In Pakistan, Vigrx Plus Results, Vigrx Plus Side Effect, Vigrx Plus Side Effects, Vigrx Plus Tab, Vigrx Plus Tablet, Vigrx Plus Uses https://preview.redd.it/5clezxgpjk951.png?width=285&format=png&auto=webp&s=8444dfe3ca04c8dc2153fe9c4bcfe1aedaa399f3 Vigrx Plus Results With addition of Bioperine , Vigrx Plus is now extra better and faster. Erectile Dysfunction? No issue now very Hard erections on needs and when you need it. No Side Effects at all as it’s far made of natural herbs. In couple of weeks you’ll get an enlarged and thicker penis. Vigrx Plus restores your sexual energy and you cast off untimely ejaculation. More effective erections and more strong and common orgasms. Increase in your libido and sexual preference. Improvement in your sexual life by way of boosting your self assurance. https://preview.redd.it/p0te9u2qjk951.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=e4ae90efaa701a81981165a15b1a27ed356c7b55
2020.06.12 18:48 Urban-PlannerIslamabad needs to grow, but a 60 year old ghost won’t let it
Islamabad Master Plan The federal capital has gone from a quaint, suburban administrative center to becoming a sprawling metropolis of more than 2 million people. But with the same master plan in place today that was designed for a very different city, it may be time to retire it. In 1960, Pakistan made the momentous move of shifting its capital from Karachi to Islamabad. Establishing a new center of power and governance is a herculean task in itself, but it was a doubly impressive feather in President Ayub Khan’s cap that the city that was to become Pakistan’s capital was built from scratch. Rome may not have been built in a day, but Islamabad was built in four years. The magnum opus of celebrated Greek architect Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis, the founder of ‘Ekistics’ and one of the fathers of the modern city, Islamabad at the time of its founding was the city of the future. Nestled in the Margalla hills, Islamabad ‘the beautiful’ was conceptualised as a symbol of unity in an ethnically and geographically divided country, and a flag bearer of modernity. But what was envisioned as a cutting edge, sleek, modern capital has since become the victim of insufficient public utilities, lack of affordable housing, commercial and office space, decaying public infrastructure, illegal and haphazard development and mushrooming slums in addition to a rapidly rising cost of living, that disproportionately affects lower income groups. At the center of this fascinating city that was practically willed into existence is the Islamabad Master Plan. A document that has, in recent times, come under vociferous scrutiny. Its supporters are willing to live and die by it, and its detractors fear it has become redundant and needs revising. With the master plan also came the Capital Development Authority (CDA), which first took charge of the city and its five meticulously laid out zones in 1960. In 2017, the Supreme Court of Pakistan (SC) took Suo Motu notice of irregular development in Islamabad and directed the government to find a solution for regularizing these constructions. Later, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) in its judgment dated July 9, 2018 directed the government to form a commission to review the Islamabad Master Plan. Consequently, a commission was formed in August 2019 to review the master plan and give its recommendations. But the commission simply gave recommendations to gloss over the issues in its attempt to maintain the original spirit and architectural integrity of the city. With Islamabad at war with itself over whether to expand to its full potential or continue to cling to its wealthy suburban roots, we look into the short but rich urban history of the country’s capital, and see whether another master plan is needed to revive a city fast losing touch with its character and purpose. Or for that matter, whether these grand, ‘master plans’ have simply become unviable relics of the past. And if that is the case, how exactly should the city be managed? Islamabad – an urban planning history Islamabad was planned as a low density, no-nonsense, administrative unit. But when the city was being formed, Doxiadis was more than just its architect designing roads, buildings and avenues. He was more of a development consultant, building not just the city, but mapping out its future at the same time. And for him, Islamabad could be nothing other than a modern, urban, space. Scholars of history are often critical of the way cities are presented on maps and in designs by developers and architects that wish to fix them by moving lines on a page. Cartography, after all, is a naturally violent process. When it is exerted upon ancient cities such as Lahore and Peshawar or bustling centers such as Karachi, they do away with the pulse of the street. The streets, as they exist outside of maps, are vascular; if you cut them they bleed. This is exactly what made Islamabad such a unique experiment. It had none of the scruples of ancient civilizations still haunting its core or colonial customs ruling the roost. It was an opportunity for a clean slate city, one where governance could be different along with city planning. Perhaps the street would not have the same vitality in the beginning as in older cities, but they would be clean and fresh. A beautiful, idyllic space for its new inhabitants to make of it what they will. At the center of this spirit with which Doxiadis planned Islamabad was the city’s grid iron pattern. There is, fundamentally, a grid dividing the city into 84 sectors, each 4 square kilometres. The other is the ‘natural’ grid created by ravines flowing through the entire site area. Each sector has five sub-sectors – four residential and one commercial (Markaz) – which is encircled by auto routes with pedestrian networks within the sector. Each of the sectors would be low slung and consist of single-family homes, American suburb style. But the plan that Doxiadis envisaged was restrictive, and clearly could not even have dreamed of how many people would migrate to Islamabad and how extensive the city would get.The master plan included nothing about zoning for the poor, or a city center, a commercial business district (CBD) for that matter. The vision was definitely futuristic. Cleanly mapped streets with sectors that had everything you would ever need and thus there would be nothing that would require you to over go anywhere outside of your sector. It was all rather mechanical, and the approach was perhaps summed up best in that no office spaces were created apart from the secretariat, and the master plan did not include any plans for expansion. After all, Islamabad was to be a small scale center for governance, with bureaucrats, politicians and government functionaries occupying its homes for the most part. What happened instead was in-migration has happened far faster than envisaged and Islamabad now has more than 2 million inhabitants. While the CDA and the courts have generally tried to stay true to Doxiadis’ plan, simply stretching and tweaking it when needed, the master plan continues to suffer from its birth defects: no CBD, no room for the poor, and no elongated car dependence. Where the plan went wrong It really is not Doxiadis’ fault however, it is simply the nature of master plans everywhere. The problem is, Islamabad’s population has grown far beyond what was once imagined, and it has become a diverse city in terms of the economic and social disparity between its inhabitants as well. However, the desire of the CDA to remain true to the original vision has meant that Islamabad has been over-regulated, limiting both the social and economic potential of the city. The land and building regulations are too rigid, and have resulted in contrived urban development and stifling of economic activities. As Islamabad grew naturally, the ghost of Doxiadis and his master plan continued to haunt the city, stifling the way it would have grown naturally. Even as the street’s of Islamabad gained the pulse that Doxiadis wanted to avoid, the master plan tried to nip it in the bud – policing the natural growth of the capital from the past. Where the situation currently stands is that Islamabad has the problem of a significant urban sprawl owing to unrestricted growth in housing schemes and roads over large expanse of land, with little concern for urban planning. At present, the housing backlog in the 2 million strong city is about 100,000 units. This gap is expected to increase by 25,000 units per year, while the current supply of houses is growing at about 3,000 annually. Despite these shocking numbers, the CDA has not launched any new residential sector in the past twenty years. The last sector was launched in 1989, and has not seen any development since then. The fact of the matter is that there are barriers to sustainable urban development in Islamabad, and part of the problem lies in restrictive zoning that encourages sprawl and single-family homes against high-density mixed-use city centers and residential areas – more in line with the Euclidean zoning which favors single-family residential as the most preferable land use. This leads to inefficient use of land which is a premium asset for any city. Because of these barriers, Islamabad has become the victim of an urban sprawl, an issue that plagues the modern city and developers. An urban sprawl is essentially the expansion of a poorly planned, low-density, automobile-dependent development, which spreads out over large amounts of land. This puts long distances between homes, stores, and work and creates a high segregation between the residential and commercial uses, with harmful impacts on the people living in these areas. One would be painfully aware that the entire design of Islamabad was such that people were able to access all necessities within their own sector and not have to venture out of it. When high levels of migration to Islamabad happened, the naturally occurring urban sprawl came in conflict with this philosophy. The best way to fight this urban sprawl would be to move towards densification of urban areas beyond the core parts of the city. The question, essentially, becomes one of horizontal development versus vertical development. In lay terms, population density is the major driving force of horizontal urban expansion, while fixed investment is the major driving force of vertical urban expansion for the city as a whole. Densification is a kind of vertical growth that would be against Islamabad’s master plan, and is not an easy task to pull off. However, it is a challenge worth taking on since it leads towards the goal of compact city development. After all, while Islamabad may have been designed in a very particular way, at some point the question has to be asked, are cities made for people or vice versa? Are master plans a relic of the past? All of this indicates the need to shake things up from the master place. Densification and changing zoning laws are needed to look after the needs of what Islamabad is fast becoming: a 2-million-strong metropolis. This is where the earlier mentioned Federal Commission for the Review of Islamabad Master Plan, set up by the IHC, should have come in. Instead, what they did was double down on the 60-year-old plan. The recommendations of the commission continue to look after cars, and to restrict the development of high-rises while hanging onto the suburban model. This was simply an oversight of the fact that Islamabad is no longer a quaint suburban city or a summer capital. It is the seat of power as well as a growing metropolis in its own right. The commission’s recommendations appear to be oblivious to the needs of the homeless and the needs of the growing metropolis of over 2 million people. But other than their same-old-same-old recommendations about engaging consultants and broad ideas, the commission managed to do very little. In short, after about sixty years since the first plan was made for Islamabad, the city is awaiting a plan that will solve its current problems. The problem of master plans is a pertinent one. Planners unfortunately are willing to knock down buildings, through court injunctions no less, for being a couple of feet higher than suffocatingly stringent regulations. However, just because planners wish to stick to a more than half century old plan does not mean that the existing nature of the city changes. In fact, when life does not adjust to the old ways, cities and their residents end up in years of strife. That is the reality Islamabad is staring down currently. Master plans had their place in the world at one point, in fact, they were the modus operandi for how to build cities after the destruction of the Second World War. However, they have fallen out of favour for some time now and for many reasons. Master plans use present and past data to chart out the trajectory of a city for the next two decades. And while this is a scientifically sound method, it does not take into account the possibility or space for change that may be needed for any reason, and particularly because people are unpredictable. The plans are also static in nature, based on unrealistic assumptions, rigid, and dictate how markets should develop leaving no room for them to find their own level. But even as the world sheds itself from the constraints of these master plans, in Pakistan, master-planning seems to be an inside job between planners and builders to stay in business. Public participation in the planning process is often perfunctory or nonexistent. These plans, therefore, are never owned by the community nor do planners recognize the needs of the people. Rethinking the city The most basic and important argument to allow a city like Islamabad to grow instead of to box it in under countless regulations is that it must be treated as a market. Conceptualising the city as a market that facilitates economic growth means that to help the economy grow, the city must be allowed to grow as well. As Nadeemul Haque, currently the vice chancellor of the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, argued in his Framework of Economic Growth, cities are born out of markets, since markets create order, which manifests itself in the form of cities, based on price signals. And if these basic market units are to help the economy grow, they must be allowed to grow too. Cities that drive productivity and growth are neither neatly planned nor laid out for suburban living and cars. It is the seeming chaotic nature of these cities that drives their productivity and growth. It is for this very reason that many cities are moving away from master plans to guidelines and rules that allow the needs of the market and investors to determine what should be built. The city planner only worries about social and community needs, public health and safety and other common issues but not with regulating everything in the city, or the economy for that matter. In addition to this, the city itself must be seen as a source of wealth, not to exploit, but to uplift its inhabitants. Cities often sit on a gold mine of assets that include not just real estate and public utilities but can also create wealth through socio economic uplift of its people and regeneration of decaying urban areas. These assets can be materialized through better city management (Detter and Fölster 2017). The world is already moving on from restrictive master planning, and it is becoming apparent that the Islamabad Master Plan was a flawed exercise from the very start, made even worse by not reviewing and updating it after every 20 years. Even as Islamabad fights a status quo that will not allow it to breathe, there are newer methods like neighbourhood planning that are used across the world, and should be employed in Pakistan as well. There is no doubt that the capital is an over-regulated city. It is also not an affordable city for low-income groups to reside in. As the master plan finally goes into the process of being re-evaluated, our suggestion would be a complete paradigm shift in our approach to city management – a shift that should be applied to other cities in Pakistan as well. Source Adapted from the PIDE report by Abdullah Niazi
2020.05.20 15:23 Twin_PalmsAsanga: Founder of the Yogacara system
No early biography of Asanga exists. All that we know of him comes mainly from the biography of his brother Vasubandhu: "The Life of Vasubandhu by Paramartha," which is the oldest and best source.
According to this narrative, Asanga was born in Purusapura (Peshawar) in North-west India (now in Pakistan). In that city lived a priest of the Court, a brahmin of the Kausika clan, who had three sons. Although all three received the same name of Vasubandhu, the oldest was known by that of Asanga, the youngest by that of Virincivatsa, whilst the second retained the name of Vasubandhu.
The third son, Virincivatsa, became a bhiksu in the Sarvastivadin order and attained arhatship. We know nothing more of him.
The second son, Vasubandhu, also became a monk in the same order. "He was highly cultured, widely knowledgeable and his mental genius was brilliant and penetrating . . . his personal discipline was pure and elevated."
The oldest, Asanga, was a man "endowed with the nature of a bodhisattva." He also became a monk in the Sarvastivadin order, and he practiced meditation and freed himself from desires. Although he had studied the teaching on Emptiness (sunyata) he could not penetrate it deeply and reach its realization. Disappointed and despairing, he was on the point of committing suicide when an arhat by the name of Pindola from Purvavideha explained to him the teaching on Emptiness according to the "early Buddhist thought." Although Asanga understood it, he was not fully satisfied with the explanation of Sunyata given by the "early Buddhist thought." Nonetheless, he did not want to abandon it. On the contrary, he decided to go further and understand the whole meaning of that profound and subtle teaching. He ascended to the Tusita heaven by means of the supernormal powers (rddhi) which he had acquired through dbyana meditation as taught by the "Hinayana." There he met the Bodhisattva Maitreya, who explained the teaching on Sunyata according to the Mahayana.
On his return to Jambudvipa (India), Asanga studied and examined the teaching on Emptiness in accordance with the methods taught to him by Maitreya and he soon achieved comprehension. Later, he frequently ascended to the Tusita heaven in order there to learn from Maitreya the teachings of the Mahayana sutras which the bodhisattva explained to him in detail.
Asanga expounded the teaching to all around him. However, those who heard him did not believe him. He therefore implored Maitreya to come down to Jambudvipa to expound the Mahayana. So the bodhisattva descended to Jambudvipa at night and he began to recite the "Sutra of the Saptadasabhumi to an audience assembled in the great hall. The recitation of the seventeen parts or sections (bhumi, lit. "ground," "stage") of the Sutra was completed at night-time over four months. At night, the people assembled in the great hall listened to Maitreya's religious discourse and, during the day, Asanga, for the benefit of others, commented upon what the bodhisattva had taught. Thus it was that the people were able to listen to and believe the teaching of the Mahayana.
Furthermore, the Bodhisattva Maitreya taught Asanga the practice of the Samadhi of Sunlight (suryaprabhasamadhi). Asanga was thus equal to that abstract meditation and what he had not so far understood became wholly clear.
Later, he composed several treatises and commentaries upon some important sutras expounding the Mahayana teachings.
Asanga's association with Maitreya as told in this account cannot be taken as historical fact, although certain eminent scholars have attempted to prove that this Maitreya, or Maitreyanatha, was an historical personage who was Asanga's teacher. There was a universal tendency of religious psychology in the ancient world to attribute to holy texts (even certain secular and literary works) a divine origin or inspiration. In India, not only the Vedas but also certain profane sciences such as Ayurveda (medicine) are supposed to have a divine origin. The Buddhists were also affected by the religio-psychological tendency of the time. If the Mahayana tradition attributes the Yogacara-Abhidharma to the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Theravadin tradition claims that the Buddha propounded the Abhidhamma not to human beings on this earth, but to the gods dwelling in the Tavatimsa heaven. He himself dwelled there for three months. It is possible that Asanga considered Maitreya to be his tutelary deity (istadevata) and that he thought or had the impression that he drew his inspiration from him.
Asanga's second brother, Vasubandhu, a man of great talent, who had to his credit exceptional spiritual successes, was a "early school Buddhist" and criticized the Mahayana. Asanga feared that his younger brother, endowed as he was with penetrating intelligence, supported by profound and extensive knowledge, might compose a sastra (treatise) and crush the Mahayana.
Vasubandhu was then living in Ayodhya surrounded by honors and revered by King Baladitya, whilst his older brother Asanga was living in his native land, in Purusapura (Peshawar). Asanga sent a messenger to his brother to tell him: "I am seriously ill at the moment. Come and tend me." Vasubandhu came and, seeing his brother, enquired as to the cause of that illness. Asanga answered him: "I am suffering from a serious sickness of the heart because of you.' Vasubandhu said: "Why do you say it is because of me?" "You do not believe in the Mahayana," responded Asanga, "and you are always attacking and discrediting it. For this misdeed you are sure to fall forever into a wretched life. I am worried, preoccupied by you, to such a extent that I shall not live for long."
On hearing that, Vasubandhu was surprised and alarmed. He implored him to expound the Mahayana to him. Then Asanga explained the essential principles to his brother who, with his clear intelligence and profound vision, immediately understood that the Mahayana surpassed the Hinayana. Vasubandhu forged ahead with his study and research under the guidance of his brother, and soon became as profoundly versed in the whole system as him. He understood for the first time that the Mahayana was the true and most complete teaching. If there were no Mahayana, he thought, then there would be no Path (marga) and "Fruit" (pbala) of the Triyanas (i.e. Bodhisattvayana, Pratyekabuddhayana and Sravakayana). Thus it was that Vasubandhu, the Great Dharma-Master, was won over to the Mahayana by his older brother Asanga.
Vasubandhu now feared to fall into a wretched life due to his misdemeanor because he had at first acted wrongfully by speaking against the Mahayana. He was filled with remorse and repented bitterly. He went to find his brother and said to him: "I have done wrong with my tongue by speaking against the Mahayana. I do not know how I can be forgiven for my past wrong action. I shall cut out my tongue in order to expiate my misdeed." But his brother said to him: "Even if you were to cut out your tongue a thousand times, you could not obliterate your misdeed. If you truly wish to obliterate it, you will have to find another means." When Vasubandhu begged his brother to suggest a means, Asanga replied: "Your tongue was able to speak very skillfully and efficiently against the Mahayana, and discredit it. If you wish to obliterate the wrong that you have done, you should expound the Mahayana with the same skillfulness and efficiency." It was thus, we might think, that on the instigation of his older brother, Vasubandhu wrote several important works in order to propound the Mahayana teachings.
According to Taranatha, Asanga visited numerous regions in India in order to propagate the Mahayana and founded some twenty-five Mahayanist monasteries.
Date: Basing ourselves on evidence brought to light by the re- search of competent scholars over several decades, we can now say with some certainty that Asanga lived during the fourth century C.E. in North-west India.
Systematization of the Mahayana: The early schools of Buddhism had already given a definite form to ideas contained in the original sutras through the elaboration of their Abhidharma texts: the Theravadins had their seven Abhidhamma Pakaranas, the Sarvastivadins had their Jnanaprasthana accompanied by its six padas. The Mahayanists were also to elaborate and formulate their own Abhidharma. This work was carried out by two great Masters who can be considered as the founders of the two main schools of the Mahayana: Nagarjuna (towards the second half of the second century C.E.) founded the Madhyamika system with his Mulamadhyamikakarika and his voluminous commentary upon the Prajnaparamita. Asanga established the Yogacara (Vijnanavada) system with his monumental work, the Yogacarabbumisastra. What the Abhidhamma Pitaka is for the Theravadins, the Jhanaprastbana for the Sarvastivadins, the Mabaprajnaparamitasastra for the Madhyamikas, the Yogacarabbumisastra is for the Yogacarins.
Post 75 - Volume 3, Chapter 10 – Original “Singing” Tablets His face was beaming, as he held in his hand our commission to enter the country at will. After reading the order which the messenger had brought us, he said, “This is not an order; it is only a request. The audience is called to confer upon you this commission.” As we were all together, it was suggested that we go immediately to see the records. We proceeded thence in a group. Upon our arrival a great surprise awaited us. There were thousands of clay tablets and records on copper and bronze plates, also beautifully carved tablets on thin white marble. As this was our first opportunity to contact this class of record, we decided to look them over at once. The Abbot told us he was not familiar with the tablets but had been told that they were of Persian origin and that he would attempt to find a Lama who was familiar with them. Thereupon he departed and we began to look them over. The characters were not familiar to any of our party. The tablets were made of two slabs of pure white marble about one quarter of an inch thick, put together like veneer with a cement that we could not identify. The edges were beautifully beveled and around each tablet was a margin of two inches with carved raised figures. Many of these figures were of pure gold inlay, while all the titles were of pure gold inlay but not raised. The tablets were carefully numbered by sets and a serial number given to each set. The space given over to the text is outlined with a threadlike vine, inlaid with gold, the leaves being inlays of green jade, and everything being worked out in perfect detail. Every tablet is a perfect jewel in itself. The type of tablet and the method of dating would indicate early Atlantean. Each tablet would be worth a king’s ransom, were they offered for sale. It seems that these tablets were discovered by a wandering Buddhist priest in the vaults under the ruins of an old temple in Persia. This priest stated that he was led to them by the sweet song he heard emanating from the ruins as he sat in Samadhi. The songs were so sweet and the voice so clear that he finally became interested, following in the direction from whence they came, and found himself within the ruined vault. The voice seemed to come from below. After a thorough inspection, he could find no evidence of an opening; so he determined to locate the source of the voice. Securing crude tools, he began digging in the debris and discovered a flagstone that seemed to be only a portion of the floor of the ruined vault. His heart sank in despair, as he thought for a time that he had been led from the right path by the whistling through the old ruins. Before leaving the place, he sat in meditation for a few moments and, as he sat thus, the voice became more clear and distinct, ending with the injunction to proceed. With almost superhuman effort he succeeded in removing the large flagstone. This disclosed an opening leading downward. As soon as he stepped through the opening into the passage, it was lighted up as by an unseen force. Ahead of him gleamed a bright light. He followed the light, which led him to the opening of a large vault, closed by huge stone doors. As he stood for a moment before these doors, the hinges began to creak and the great stone slab swung slowly, revealing an opening through which he passed. As he crossed the threshold, the voice rang out clear and sweet as though the owner occupied the interior. The light that seemed stationary at the door, moved to the center of the great vault, lighting it fully. There in niches, in the walls of this vault, covered with dust and the accumulation of ages, were the tablets. He inspected a few, realizing their beauty and value, then decided to wait until he could communicate with two or three of his trusted associates, and confer with them regarding the removal of the tablets to a place of safety. He left the vault, replaced the slab and covered it over again with the debris; then started on a quest for associates who would believe his story and who had the fortitude and means to carry out his plan. The quest lasted for over three years. Nearly all those to whom he related his story thought he had gone stark mad. Finally, one day while on a pilgrimage, he came across three priests whom he had known while on a similar pilgrimage and he told them the story. At first, they were very sceptical but one evening at exactly nine, as they were sitting around the campfire, the voice began to sing of these records. The next day the four of them dropped out of the company and started the journey to the ruins. From that time on, at nine o’clock in the evening, the voice would sing. If they were weary and downcast, the voice would sing all the sweeter. At the journey’s end, as they were approaching the ruins, an hour before midday, a slight boyish form appeared before them and began singing, leading the way to the ruins. When they arrived, the flagstone was lifted and they went immediately to the vault. As they approached, the doors swung open and they entered. A short examination convinced the priests of the value and truth of the discovery. Indeed, so enraptured were they that they did not sleep for three days. They made all haste to a village about seventy miles distant to secure camels and supplies which would enable them to move the tablets to a place of greater safety. They finally secured twelve camels, loaded them, and returned. The tablets were packed in such a manner that they would not be injured. Securing three more camels, they started the long journey through Persia and Afghanistan to Peshawar. Near Peshawar they secreted their burdens in a secluded cave, where they remained for five years. One of the priests always sat in Samadhi before the cave all the time, to protect the tablets. From Peshawar they were removed to Lahnda in Punjabi. Here they reposed for ten years. Then by slow stages, they were brought here and deposited in the palace of the Grand Lama. This took more than forty years to accomplish. From this palace, they were to be taken to Shamballa. In other words, we had found them in transit. At this time in the narrative, an attendant brought four of the tablets into the room and placed them carefully on the raised place that answered as a table around which we sat, so that we faced them. Just as the hands of the Clock pointed to the hour of nine, a voice came forth in lilting tones, infinitely sweet, yet of a highly pitched immature boyish treble. These are the words translated into English as faithfully as we are able to present them: “That there is an all-wise, intelligent Spirit, that this intelligence is Divine and infinite and permeates all things, cannot be contradicted. Because this intelligence does permeate all thing it is infinite and is the source of all. It is Divine and its Divinity brought into thinkable or visible form, the fact or truth of all things. “You can name this all-wise, intelligent Spirit, God or Good, or what you will, as man must have a name for everything. Once he has named a thing, he has power to bring it into existence**. If man names anything through true reverence, worship, and praise, he can and does become that which he names.** “Thus you can see that man by choice can become God or animal. He becomes the ideal which he presents for himself to follow. With this line of thinking, it is simple to see that man is the only begotten Son of God, or the only-begotten son of the animal. Thus, by choice, man can become evil or devil if his eye beholds evil; or he becomes God, if his eye beholds God. “In the formless state, the all-wise, intelligent Spirit was silent and contemplative; yet the intelligence was there and saw itself as the producer as well as the spectator of all animate and inanimate things. In this silent state, the all-wise, intelligent Spirit saw there was no modification; and resolving to emanate or bring forth the universe, this intelligence formed a picture of what the universe should be. Having naught but the perfect picture or Divine plan to follow, the universe willingly took the form directed by the intelligence. “The Divine Ideal picture was expanded until it came into perfect visibility. This is the Universe that we see today, that is going on with the perfect plan held forth for it to assume. “This intelligence is and always has been the perceiver and director of its perfect, Divine Ideal plan. “This Intelligence knew that it was necessary to bring forth animate form and endow it with all potentialities, through which it could express fully. This is what is known as immortal man. This Divine Ideal, which differentiates itself in all phases and directions, is the immortal of each man today. As this man was created in the Divine Ideal of all-wise Intelligence, Spirit, he was set forth as the Son of the Principle, with dominion over every attribute and every condition. Son means union with, not a servant of. It was necessary that this Son be wholly free to choose and in no way become a slave or a puppet. “This immortal ideal must always include a portion or spark of the central fire of that which brought or projected it into existence. This projection was the first cell that finally became man’s body and is the spark of life that always endures and never dies. This cell is, in name, the Christ. This cell, although divided and repeated many millions of times, retains the image of the Divine Spirit projected and implanted in it and cannot be perverted by man’s thinking. Thus man is always Divine. “This cell projects its divinity into every cell created by the multiplication of itself,unlessperverted by man’s thinking. The collection of these cells finally assumes unto itself a container or cover, which is called the human body. The spirit or essence, still in unmodified form, has the intelligence to see all changes going on around it. By always standing in his high dominion, man is Spirit and Spirit is God. “This higher self must be thought of, pondered over, worshipped, and blessed as being right within man. “First, there must be faith that it is there. This brings forth the knowing that it does exist in man; then the blessings and thanks given bring it into visibility. Man is that very thing itself. This is the way to the attainment of all knowledge. “The brain at first seems to be the perceiver, because it is the aggregation of the more delicate cells; and these cells first accept the vibrations and amplify them so that they may be perceived by man. Then they are selected and sent to all the other organs; and each, if held in divine order, goes to the very organ to which it belongs. “Each organ and nerve center is the seat or special amplifying center for centralizing the real man. When they are harmonized and coordinated, man stands forth in all dominion and power**. He has brought forth the Holy Ghost, the whole of the all-wise, intelligent Spirit in creative action.*\* This is soul and body brought to one focal center******. No man ever accomplishes anything unless he consciously or unconsciously brings every faculty to this one center. This is the place of power, the Christ within man, the place where man stands supreme.** “Then how can man suffer discord, inharmony, sin, or sickness unless he idealizes them and brings them into existence? If he stands forth always and at all times, as the all-wise, intelligent Spirit and knows no other, he cannot be conscious of anything less. With this highest ideal always held in the clear waters of man’s intelligent thinking, he becomes God. He is certain to be answered by this inner voice at all times. “Back of will, stands desire. Will, in its true estate, is a pure colorless force and is moved into action by desire. If there is no color or direction given to will, it is inactive. Place the desire in harmony with the will force and it will spring into action immediately and call legions to carry out its commands—the only requirement being that the commands are in Divine order. “There are myriads of worlds. There is but one thought out of which they grew. Its law is order which cannot swerve. Its creatures are free to choose. Only they can create disorder, which in itself is pain and woe, hate, and fear. These, they alone can bring forth. “The Great Principle stands forth as a Golden Light. It is not remote, it is right within yourself. Hold yourself within its glow and you will behold all things clearly. “First, with all your being, know one thing: that your own thought when you stand, is one with that thought which brought forth the worlds. “Out of the blackness of disorder and its outpouring of human misery, there must arise the order which is peace. When man learns that he is one with the thought which is of itself all beauty, all power, and all repose, he will know that his brother cannot rob him of his heart’s desire. He will stand in the Light and draw unto himself his own. “Let pass through your mind, my son, only the image you desire, which is Truth**. Meditate only upon the true desire of your heart, knowing that it does not wrong any man and is most noble. Now it takes earthly form and is yours. This is the law through which you bring forth your heart’s desire.** “Let him who puts forth his hand to draw the lightning to his brother recall that through his own soul and body will pass the bolt.” With further research, these tablets may prove to be copies of former records made to preserve the originals. If copies, they must have been made during the early Indo-Aryan Age. As far as is known, there is nothing like them in existence today. From what source but the One did they spring? Thus they could be repeated in song and verse many thousands of times. Oh man, where is your crown? From eternity it passes on. Where is your soul! But from The Infinite it grew Forever and forever Is it but select to you. Here were the four tablets set before us, each one worth a King’s ransom.
2020.02.14 16:38 Horace_MumpJAMIE GLAZOV: HATING VALENTINE'S DAY....(The Collectivists war on personal love)
Today, February 14, is Valentine’s Day, the sacred day that intimate companions mark to celebrate their love and affection for one another. If you’re thinking about making a study of how couples celebrate this day in a positive and loving manner, the Muslim world and the milieus of the radical Left are not the places you should be spending your time. Indeed, it’s pretty hard to outdo Islamists and “progressives” when it comes to the hatred of Valentine’s Day. And this hatred is precisely the territory on which the contemporary romance between the Left and Islamic Supremacism is formed – as my new book, Jihadist Psychopath, documents. The train is never late: every year that Valentine’s comes around, the Muslim world erupts with ferocious rage, with its leaders doing everything in their power to suffocate the festivity that comes with the celebration of private romance. Imams around the world thunder against Valentine’s every year — and the celebration of the day itself is literally outlawed in Islamic states. Last week, for instance, an Indonesian Muslim group named ‘Indonesia Tanpa Pacaran’ started promoting their new Sharia-compliant replacement for Valentine’s Day: “Indonesia Without Dating Day” — and began organizing rallies, talks and events to suffocate the actual real holiday and the practice of pre-marital dating. The group is just fulfilling, of course, what many cities across Muslim-majority Indonesia do every year: prohibit people from celebrating Valentine’s Day. In the city of Surabaya, when Valentine’s draws near, a group of school students, which include many girls wearing the hijab, always make sure to denounce the day. In Aceh province every year, Muslim clerics issue stern warnings to Muslims against observing Valentine’s Day. Tgk Feisal, general secretary of the Aceh Ulema Association (HUDA), has stated that “It is haram for Muslims to observe Valentine’s Day because it does not accord with Islamic Sharia.” He has stressed that the government must watch out for youths participating in Valentine’s Day activities in Aceh. One can only imagine what happens to the guilty parties. In Iran, meanwhile, on Tuesday earlier this week, the Center for Reduction And Control of Social Harms of the Prosecutor’s Office in Qom threatened businesses that if they promoted “anti-cultural symbols such as Valentine’s symbols” they would be shut down from one to six months. The Prosecutor’s Office also provided a number for people to call to report “transgressions”. Without doubt, the Islamic Republic of Iran is always on the case when it comes to Valentine’s Day. Under this vicious regime, any sale or promotion of Valentine’s Day-related items, including the exchange of gifts, flowers and cards, is strictly prohibited. Iran’s “morality” police consistently warn retailers against the promotion of Valentine’s Day celebrations, sternlyordering shops to remove heart-and-flower decorations and images of couples embracing on this day — and anytime around this day. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is also on heightened alert. Every year it bans Valentine’s Day for promoting “immorality, nudity and indecency.” Last year, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) sustained its decision to outlaw Valentine’s Day celebrations across the country, ordering authorities to take action on anyone daring to celebrate or promote the Day of Love. Pakistani television and radio stations are disallowed from mentioning the event. No one in society, from an official level to any public place, can even hint that they might be celebrating, let alone thinking about, the day. Pakistan views Valentine’s Day as an “insult” to Islam. In the past, Valentine’s Day activities in the Islamic country were disrupted by Jamaat-e-Islami, Pakistan’s main religious party, but in recent years the state and courts have involved themselves. Back on Valentine’s Day in Pakistan in 2013, supporters of Jamat-e-Islami took to the streets in Peshawar to vehemently denounce the Day of Love. Demonizing it as “un-Islamic,” the Muslim protestors shouted that the day had “spread immodesty in the world.” Shahzad Ahmed, the local leader of the student wing of Jamat-e-Islami, declared that the organization would not “allow” any Valentine’s Day functions, warning that if Pakistani law enforcement did not prevent Pakistanis from holding such functions, that the Jamat-e-Islami would stop them “in our own way.” Khalid Waqas Chamkani, a leader in Jamat-e-Islami, calls Valentine’s a “shameful day.” These Islamic forces in Pakistan cannot, of course, no matter how hard they try, completely succeed in preventing couples from showing love to each other on this special day, and so many Pakistanis still cryptically celebrate Valentine’s Day and exchange presents in secret. In Muslim-dominant Malaysia, meanwhile, while Islamic religious leaders and officials warn people against celebrating Valentine’s, the group The National Muslim Youth Association consistently issues a yearly pre-Valentine’s Day message in which it demonizes the day and specifically directs females not to use emoticons and perfume. Malaysia’s State mufti chief assistant Mat Jais Kamos is habitually mindful of issuing warnings about Valentine’s — and that is why, in 2014, a few days beforehand, he ordered young people to stay clear of celebrating the Day of Love: “The celebration emphasizes the relationship between two individuals rather than the love between family members or married couples,” he affirmed, and department officials backed up his command by distributing leaflets to remind citizens of the 2006 ban on Valentine’s Day issued by the state fatwa council. In Saudi Arabia, the morality police consistently punish the slightest hint of Valentine’s Day celebrations. The Kingdom and its religious police officially issue stern warnings that anyone caught even thinking about Valentine’s Day will suffer some of the most painful penalties of Sharia Law. Daniel Pipes has documented how the Saudi regime takes a firm stand against Valentine’s every year. Indeed, the Saudi religious police outlaw the sale of all Valentine’s Day items, forcing shopkeepers to remove roses, all red items and numerous other gifts. Christian overseas workers living in Saudi Arabia from the Philippines and other countries always take extra precautions, heeding the Saudis’ warning to them specifically to avoid greeting anyone with the words “Happy Valentine’s Day” or exchanging any gift that reeks of romance. A spokesman for a Philippine workers group has commented:
We are urging fellow Filipinos in the Middle East, especially lovers, just to celebrate their Valentine’s Day secretly and with utmost care.
Pakistan, Malaysia, Iran and Saudi Arabia are clearly carrying the torch for the IndonesianUlemaCouncil in Dumai, Riau, and for the Education, Youth and Sport Agency in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, both of which issue a dire warning each year to people against celebrating Valentine’s Day, stating that the Day of Love “is against Islam.” This is because, as the IndonesianUlemaCouncil2011 judgment explained, Valentine’s Day takes young people into a “dark world.” In Islamic Uzbekistan, several universities are very conscious of that dark world, habitually make sure that students actually sign contractspromising not to celebrate Valentine’s. Typical of this whole pathology in the Islamic world was a development witnessed back on February 10, 2006, when activists of the radical Kashmiri Islamic group Dukhtaran-e-Millat (Daughters of the Community) went on a rampage in Srinagar, the main city of the Indian portion of Kashmir. Some two dozen black-veiled Muslim women stormed gift and stationery shops, burning Valentine’s Day cards and posters showing couples together. In the West, meanwhile, leftist feminists are not to be outdone by their Islamist allies in reviling — and trying to exterminate — Valentine’s Day. Throughout many Women’s Studies Programs on American campuses, for instance, you will find the demonization of this day, since, as the disciples of Andrea Dworkin angrily explain, the day is a manifestation of how capitalist, racist, classist, sexist and homophobic patriarchs brainwash and oppress women — and push them into spheres of powerlessness. As an individual who spent more than a decade in academia, I was privileged to witness this war against Valentine’s Day up close and personal. Feminist icons like Jane Fonda, meanwhile, help lead the assault on Valentine’s Day in society at large. As David Horowitz has documented, Fonda has led the campaign to transform this special day into “V-Day” (“Violence against Women Day”) — which is, when it all comes down to it, a day of hate, featuring a mass indictment of men. So what exactly is transpiring here? What explains this hatred of Valentine’s Day by leftist feminists and Islamists? And how and why does it serve as the sacred bond that brings the Left and Islam together into its feast of hate? The core issue at the foundation of this phenomenon is that Islam and the Left both revile the notion of private love, a non-tangible and divine entity that draws individuals to each other and, therefore, distracts them from submitting themselves to a secular deity. The highest objective of both Islam and the Left is clear: to shatter the sacred intimacy that a man and a woman can share with one another, for such a bond is inaccessible to the order. History, therefore, demonstrates how Islam, like Communism, wages a ferocious war on any kind of private and unregulated love. In the case of Islam, the reality is epitomized in its monstrous structures of gender apartheid and the terror that keeps it in place. As we are well aware, female sexuality and freedom are demonized and, therefore, forced veiling, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, honor killings and other misogynist monstrosities become mandatory parts of the sadistic paradigm. The puritanical nature of totalist systems (whether Fascist, Communist, or Islamic) is another manifestation of this phenomenon. In Stalinist Russia, sexual pleasure was portrayed as unsocialist and counter-revolutionary. More recent Communist societies have also waged war on sexuality — a war that Islam, as we know, wages with similar ferocity. These totalist structures cannot survive in environments filled with love-seeking individuals who prioritize their own individual agency and devotion to other individual human beings over the collective and the state. Because leftist believers, deep down, viscerally hate the notion and reality of personal love and “the couple,” they champion the enforcement of totalitarian puritanism by the despotic regimes they worship. The famous twentieth-century novels of dystopia, Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We, George Orwell’s 1984, and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, all powerfully depict totalitarian society’s assault on the realm of personal love in its violent attempt to dehumanize human beings and completely subject them to its rule. In Zamyatin’s We, the earliest of the three novels, the despotic regime keeps human beings in line by giving them license for regulated sexual promiscuity, while private love is illegal. The hero breaks the rules with a woman who seduces him — not only into forbidden love but also into a counterrevolutionary struggle. In the end, the totality forces the hero, like the rest of the world’s population, to undergo the Great Operation, which annihilates the part of the brain that gives life to passion and imagination, and therefore spawns the potential for love. In Orwell’s 1984, the main character ends up being tortured and broken at the Ministry of Truth for having engaged in the outlawed behavior of unregulated love. In Huxley’s Brave New World, promiscuity is encouraged — everyone has sex with everyone else under regime rules, but no one is allowed to make a deep and independent private connection. Yet as these novels demonstrate, no tyranny’s attempt to turn human beings into obedient robots can fully succeed. There is always someone who has doubts, who is uncomfortable, and who questions the secular deity — even though it would be safer for him to conform like everyone else. The desire that therefore overcomes the instinct for self-preservation is erotic passion. And that is why love presents such a threat to the totalitarian order: it dares to serve itself. It is a force more powerful than the all-pervading fear that a totalitarian order needs to impose in order to survive. Leftist and Muslim social engineers, therefore, in their twisted and human-hating imaginations, believe that the road toward earthly redemption (under a classless society or Sharia) stands a chance only if private love and affection is purged from the human condition. This is exactly why, forty years ago, as David Horowitz and Peter Collier demonstrate in Destructive Generation, the Weather Underground not only waged war against American society through violence and mayhem, but also waged war on private love within its own ranks. Bill Ayers, one of the leading terrorists in the group, argued in a speech defending the campaign:
Any notion that people can have responsibility for one person, that they can have that ‘out’ — we have to destroy that notion in order to build a collective; we have to destroy all ‘outs,’ to destroy the notion that people can lean on one person and not be responsible to the entire collective.
Thus, the Weather Underground destroyed any signs of monogamy within its ranks and forced couples, some of whom had been together for years, to admit their “political error” and split apart. Like their icon Margaret Mead, they fought the notions of romantic love, jealousy, and other “oppressive” manifestations of one-on-one intimacy and commitment. This was followed by forced group sex and “national orgies,” whose main objective was to crush the spirit of individualism. This constituted an eerie replay of the sexual promiscuity that was encouraged (while private love was forbidden) in We, 1984, and Brave New World. It becomes completely understandable, therefore, why leftist believers were so inspired by the tyrannies in the Soviet Union, Mao’s China, North Vietnam and many other communist countries. As sociologist Paul Hollander has documented in his classic Political Pilgrims, fellow travelers were especially enthralled with the desexualized dress that the Maoist regime imposed on its citizens. This at once satisfied the leftist’s yearning for enforced sameness and the imperative of erasing attractions between private citizens. As I have demonstrated in United in Hate, the Maoists’ unisex clothing finds its parallel in fundamentalist Islam’s mandate for shapeless coverings to be worn by both males and females. The collective “uniform” symbolizes submission to a higher entity and frustrates individual expression, mutual physical attraction, and private connection and affection. And so, once again, the Western leftist remains not only uncritical, but completely supportive of — and enthralled in — this form of totalitarian puritanism. This is precisely why leftist feminists today do not condemn the forced veiling of women in the Islamic world; because they support everything that forced veiling is and engenders. It should be no surprise, therefore, what solution Oslo Professor of Anthropology, Dr. Unni Wikan, has come up with for the high incidence of Muslims raping Norwegian women: the rapists must not be punished, but Norwegian women must veil themselves. Valentine’s Day is a “shameful day” for the Muslim world and for the Left. It is shameful because private love is considered obscene, since it threatens the highest of values: the need for a totalitarian order to attract the complete and undivided attention, allegiance and veneration of every citizen. Love serves as the most lethal threat to the tyrants seeking to build Sharia and a classless utopia on earth, and so these tyrants yearn for the annihilation of every ingredient in man that smacks of anything that it means to be human. And so perhaps it is precisely on reflecting on Valentine’s Day that we are reminded of the hope that we can realistically have in our battle with the ugly and pernicious Unholy Alliance that seeks to destroy our civilization. This day reminds us that we have a weapon, the most powerful arsenal on the face of the earth, in front of which despots and terrorists quiver and shake, and sprint from in horror into the shadows of darkness, desperately avoiding its piercing light. That arsenal is love. And no Maoist Red Guard or Saudi Islamo-Fascist cop ever stamped it out — no matter how much they beat and tortured their victims. And no ISIS Jihadist or Feminazi will ever succeed in suffocating it, no matter how ferociously they lust to disinfect man of who and what he is. Love will prevail. Long Live Valentine’s Day.
2020.02.05 14:05 pkescortsfun69VVIP Escorts in Karachi 03071113332 Karachi Escorts
Escorts Service in Karachi gives a perfect, accommodating and agreeable demeanor, incredible communicators. These hot young ladies are dynamic, excellent and affable, sex engages, proud, confident, persistent, receptive outlook, solid body, engaging, smart, trust, wonderful character, and innovative. Escorts in Karachi accompanies young ladies to have hot and beguiling demeanors on the face. Our model young ladies have lovely body figures and make the customer feel calm because of their expert work understanding. These models are an unadulterated, pleasant heart, and they will never cheat to anybody because of their polished skill. https://preview.redd.it/brhzapagt3f41.jpg?width=236&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e7eefc8f9ece1c32992e103d05f58080c6e888b1 We have youngsters from 19 years to 29 years of age. We are in this industry throughout the previous seven years. A lot of customers have daze trust in our young ladies and us. These top models Karachi Escorts are additionally offering the best personals administrations. Our young ladies are accessible in Karachi and approaching regions. Islamabad Call Girls03071113332 Nowadays Karachi, Pakistan is incredibly outstanding for the radiance of women and other magnificent four sorts of atmosphere, such a heavenly spot like Karachi, Islamabad, Peshawar. Most of the people come to Karachi for the movement and various people come to Karachi for delight and go through their days off in Karachi, Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and different people are doing assorted business here in Karachi, Pakistan. We are female escorts based office in Karachi and giving the best Escorts in Islamabad, we are working from the latest couple of years in Pakistan. So in case you are looking for such brilliant and excellent female Pakistani Islamabad Escorts so no more inquiry you are in the advantageous spot, We understand that you love dating and need to fun with different youngsters, for instance, moving estimation, etc. It is a general need for each man. Islamabad female models youngsters are extraordinarily outstanding in the Islamabad Call Girls field. Islamabad Escorts Girls’ goal is to give VIP and best escorts organization in Islamabad to our clients with the most magnificent and charming Islamabad Escorts.
2020.01.21 07:02 psll2020PSL YouTube Live Streaming
https://preview.redd.it/hzszpk84o2c41.jpg?width=311&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bd20e1c836e97bca9e04b850524dfb0b99f2e195 Pakistan Super League (PSL) is a residential T20 cricket competition in Pakistan. This T20 competition has set up by Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) in the year 2015. When PSL was begun there were just 5 groups playing and now there are 6 groups. PSL have 4 seasons has been led and now this season will be the fifth version of Pakistan Super PSL YouTube Live Streaming League.The class will be held completely in Pakistan just because. In the previous 4 years this T20 alliance gets heaps of ubiquity internationally alongside certain debates. In the interim, just because, the Pakistan Cricket Board has chosen to have the all the PSL coordinates in Pakistan. Beforehand, the association stages were played in the UAE before facilitating the season finisher organizes in Pakistan. The phase for the Pakistan Super League (PSL) 2020 has been set with the establishments picking their best 18 players to go for the prominent T20 cricket rivalry. The PSL 2020 draft occurred on 06 December 2019 at National Cricket Academy in Lahore and every one of the establishments have attempted to pick the best group for the competition. The PSL 2020 is booked to occur between 20 February 2020 and 22 March 2020. he fifth version of Pakistan Super League will be held completely in Pakistan just because. All the 34 matches of PSL 2020 will be held in Lahore, Karachi, Multan and Rawalpindi, with UAE as a back-up choice. The opening service of the competition is booked to happen in Karachi, while the end of the season games, including the last, are planned to occur at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. PSL 2020 Match Timingslright, so you read all the data about Pakistan Super League (PSL) 2020 Teams, Players, Venue, Match Timinings, PSL 2020 Schedule most recent updates, and all the past champs of PSL. All the cricket fans are very exicted for the up and coming period of Pakistan Super League. First version of Pakistan Super League T20 Cricket competition won by Islamabad United. In the last match Islamabad United vanquished Quetta Gladiators by 6 wickets and won debut release of PSL. Pakistan Super League set up in 9 September 2015 with 5 groups later on 6th group partook in it however in 2020 there's an opportunity to come seventh group in it yet it's not affirm yet. Pakistan Super League is known as PSL in short word, psl class is the t20 cricket alliance that will be facilitated by Pakistan, forthcoming psl occasion that will be begun on 20 February 2020, so all psl darlings anticipating for this psl occasion 2020. In the event that you need consistently be refreshed with PSL 2020 PAKISTAN SUPER LEAGUE 2020 After the consummation of PSL fourth version, presently psl 5 will be coming soon in February Or March 2020. As all cricket fans realize who wins psl 4 Final Match? Quetta Gladiators won vanquished Peshawar Zalmi. The same number of cricket fans and psl sweethearts first they need to know when psl 2020 will be begun? at that point second in their mind that psl beginning date. Intends to state they are needed to realize that when psl 2020 beginning date.
2019.12.16 13:21 RentalCar322Bahria Town Peshawar – Another Great Project Launching Soon
Today, UPN is offering the generally excellent news to you that Bahria Town Peshawar is before long going to be formally propelled. The CEO of Bahria Town Private Limited Mr. Malik Riaz has as of late tweeted at reported this is an ideal opportunity to convey once more. He has said that the residents of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) to 'prepare'. Bahria Town Peshawar is another breathtaking expansion in the cutting edge lodging undertakings of Bahria Town. This cutting edge, well-planned venture will get an extraordinary change the land of Peshawar. It won't simply offer elevated expectation living to the individuals of Peshawar yet bringing likewise a perfect venture open door for speculators. Presently it is affirmed that this task "Bahria Town Peshawar" is before long going to be a reality on the scene of KPK. Bahria Town Peshawar Official Launching Date Bahria Town Peshawar is the best in class venture that is relied upon to be dispatch in the following couple of months. Mr. Malik Riaz has tweeted that "Now the hold up is finished and opportunity has arrived to convey to Bahria Peshawar!" There is no official date of the dispatch is reported at this point. In any case, there are a few bits of gossip that Bahria Town Peshawar will be propelled in January 2020. Venture Details It is accepted that simply like the uber lodging venture Bahria Town Karachi, this exceptionally appealing will amaze everybody with its highlights, attractions, and offices. It will cover an enormous region of land and will be furnished with all the current offices for its inhabitants. Bahria Town Peshawar will be a spot with appealing, moderate, and the best private and business properties. Plots, however you will have the option to purchase developed estates, workplaces, and condos also. Interest in Bahria Town Peshawar Making an interest in Bahria Town ventures is constantly a gainful choice. Same keeping in see the past records, Bahria Town Peshawar will likewise worth your venture. It will be the correct decision for both living arrangement and interest in KPK. Bahria Town Private Limited consistently picks the best area for the dispatch of their undertakings. Along these lines, here the area of this task will likewise affect your speculation. Almost certainly, intrigued customers are standing by frantically for the booking types of this uber venture in Peshawar. As a matter of fact, everybody wishes to guarantee his property in Bahria Town Peshawar as quickly as time permits. We guarantee you that the booking types of the considerable number of properties will be soon accessible soon after the official dispatch of this venture.
2019.12.07 14:16 BhariapeshawarBahria Town Peshawar
Bahria Town Peshawar LAUNCHING SOONBahria Town CEO Malik Riaz has finally announced to launch the Bahria Town Peshawar housing scheme in January 2020. Malik Riaz wrote on his Twitter account that it was ’time to deliver yet again’ asking the citizens of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) to ‘get ready’.Bahria Town is the pioneer of real estate in Pakistan. It has won Property Awards on Asia level. Having delivered successful projects in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi. It now intends to reach out to other cities. So it is focusing on lesser common cities to provide state-of-the-art living and the latest announcement includes the Bahria Town Peshawar.Peshawar is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, which is also the center of commercial and cultural activities of the whole province. Bahria Town is known for its premium infrastructure in Karachi, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Lahore.It is going to be a good investment opportunity for investors. In fact, the residents living in Peshawar. We have started the process of booking plots and villas. You can feel free to contact us, as we will provide you with our services and help you make the right choice.Bahria Town Peshawar is on the way to becoming a greatest real estate scheme in Peshawar. Peshawar is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa that is also the hub of business activities for the whole district.Bahria Town Peshawar is the most recent augmentation in Bahria town real estate in addition it is a wonderful possibility for the residents of Peshawar to enjoy the luxurious facilities of Pakistan’s premium and also properly planned residential society. image Bahria town is in the process of development as the management is finalizing the inauguration date of Peshawar project. Be ready to become a part of this luxurious housing society Also be prepared to reserve a plot in Bahria Town Peshawar project as it is an excellent opportunity for Peshawar residents to enjoy the standard of living in Bahria Town. Recently Defense housing authority another real estate massive of Pakistan introduced its project in Peshawar where the huge response of public from bias Pakistan and also overseas was observed. Bahria Town Peshawar was in the newscast of 2015 while CEO of Bahria town Malik Riaz Hussain twittered about Bahria Town. According to gossips Bahria town get about 4500 canal for Bahria town Peshawar. This housing society is going to become a great opportunity for those who want to invest in a profitable real estate project. Bahria Town Peshawar BAHRIA TOWN PESHAWAR LAUNCHING SOON Bahria Town CEO Malik Riaz has finally announced to launch the Bahria Town Peshawar housing scheme in January 2020. Malik Riaz wrote on his Twitter account that it was ’time to deliver yet again’ asking the citizens of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) to ‘get ready’. Bahria Town is the pioneer of real estate in Pakistan. It has won Property Awards on Asia level. Having delivered successful projects in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi. It now intends to reach out to other cities. So it is focusing on lesser common cities to provide state-of-the-art living and the latest announcement includes the Bahria Town Peshawar Peshawar is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, which is also the center of commercial and cultural activities of the whole province. Bahria Town is known for its premium infrastructure in Karachi, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Lahore. It is going to be a good investment opportunity for investors. In fact, the residents living in Peshawar. We have started the process of booking plots and villas. You can feel free to contact us, as we will provide you with our services and help you make the right choice. Contact us Today ::::: +92 331 9840145
Pakistan and China have an extensive and cooperative history, most recently via the BRI subsidiary program CPEC - the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. CPEC is a massive initiative, with over $62 billion in infrastructure and assets being attributed to the program. Specifically, the Port of Gwadar has been called the crossing point of the Belt and Road Initiative and the Maritime Silk Road Project, being one of the PRC's most massive single infrastructure development initiatives to date. Other major points of Pakistan's development include the Karachi-Peshawar Railway Line, a privately-funded $33 billion energy overhaul, bringing over 4.5k MW to an electricity-starved country, and a rail line linking northern Pakistan to the Xinjiang region of China. Among other things. CPEC is considered by many to be similar to the Marshall Plan in scope and effect, and is estimated to provide millions of jobs and entire percentage points of economic growth to Pakistan over the coming years. However, in recent times, many private investors have fled CPEC initiatives in Pakistan due to a pesty terrorist problem which has hindered projects, especially considering some of these attacks have targeted Chinese embassies or Chinese workers within Pakistan. We discussed in 2019 with the Pakistani government the grounds for continued Chinese investment in CPEC, which included a dialing back of infrastructure projects and a potential military dialogue to reduce potential risk for investors and Chinese employees in the area. The PRC believes that the easiest way to ease investor worries and begin checking the boxes on risk assessments once again is to focus on the crown jewel of CPEC - the Gwadar Port. Currently, ongoing projects are continuing, which include dredging a support channel, constructing additional berths, and increasing cargo capacity. However, citing the need for increased logistical capacity to reduce Baluchi terror in the region, President Xi Jinping has contacted Pakistani leader Arif Alvi to request approval for a military outfitting of a small portion of Gwadar Port to be jointly managed by Pakistani and Chinese militaries. Before drafting any official plans, we wish to seek Pakistani approval. This addition would see a fully new section be developed for military and logistical purposes on the Koh-E-Batil plateau, on the northeast end of Gwadar Port. The base will theoretically include a 2000 foot runway and at least two helipads. Specifics can be further discussed following approval.
Trump keeps falsely saying the US has the 'world's cleanest and safest air.' Actually, he's making pollution worse: 'In terms of PM 2.5 pollution - a measure of ultra-fine particulate matter in the air - the country with the world's cleanest air is New Zealand.' CommentsLink Europe's aviation safety watchdog will not accept a US verdict on whether Boeing's troubled 737 Max is safe. Instead, the European Aviation Safety Agency (Easa) will run its own tests on the plane before approving a return to commercial flights. CommentsLink UK MPs vote against a General Election CommentsLink
Jones loses appeal in Texas lawsuit with Sandy Hook father CommentsLink Massive BBQ planned outside vegan’s home after she complained about meat smell CommentsLink Jussie Smollett lawyers: Actor unaware alleged attack would trigger 'extensive investigation' CommentsLink
Students who do not date are not social misfits, suggests new study of 594 10th graders, which found that adolescents who were not in a romantic relationship had good social skills and low depression, and fared better or equal to peers who dated, refuting the notion that non-daters are maladjusted. CommentsLink We can tell where a whale has travelled from the themes in its song, suggests a new study, that found that when whales travel their songs change as they pick up new tunes from whales they meet that have come from different regions. CommentsLink Consumption of plant protien rather than animal protein is associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes in an 18 year study of Japanese adults. CommentsLink
Senator: Mark Zuckerberg should face "the possibility of a prison term" for repeatedly lying to the American people about their privacy CommentsLink Over 400 million Facebook users' phone numbers exposed in privacy lapse CommentsLink Google accused of secretly feeding personal data to advertisers CommentsLink
N.J. man broke into Taylor Swift’s mansion, politely took off shoes and hung out, cops say CommentsLink Drugs awarded to Peshawar cops for good performance CommentsLink Indian government plans to produce ‘highly intellectual’ children using cow urine CommentsLink
Do they not teach DHCP/DNS anymore? Comments If your company provides phones, or a phone number that is ALSO used as the personal number for the employee, should it be on an MDM? Comments New job blues (sanity check required) Comments
Suggestions for Learning Powershell as a DBA? Comments I want to display the array index of certain items in a JSON string using T-SQL Comments I am looking for suggestions for an ER modeling tool Comments
Graduated from the safety squints today CommentsLink Designed and printed an adapter for 50ml tubes instead of 15ml. Saved a few hundred euros, finally used my printer for something CommentsLink Simple and quick solution for curtain. CommentsLink
Lexical Similarity of selected Romance, Germanic, and Slavic languages [OC] CommentsLink Interactive Zip Code Map of US - Type in a zip code and the map will show you all zip codes starting with those numbers (until there is only one) [OC] CommentsLink Price-to-gross-rent ratio for housing units in the U.S. [OC] CommentsLink
TIL that the only existing footage of the first plane hitting the tower during 9/11 was only recorded because 2 people wanted to make a documentary on what it was like to be a firefighter in New York City, and when the cameraman heard the plane, he pointed it at the tower, and captured the crash. CommentsLink TIL that Manhattan Project nuclear physicist Alvin Weinberg was fired from his job for continually advocating for a safer and less weaponizable nuclear reactor using Thorium, one that has no chance of a meltdown. CommentsLink TIL Randy Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours, a world record. On the 11th day, when he was asked to subtract seven repeatedly, starting with 100, he stopped at 65. When asked why he had stopped, he replied that he had forgotten what he was doing. CommentsLink#Health_effects)
Dolly Parton's ‘Books From Birth’ Has Now Delivered One Million Free Children's Books To D.C. Kids CommentsLink I didn't fully appreciate The Hitchhikers Guide to The Galaxy when I first read it. Comments For four years, Chanel Miller has been known as Emily Doe. In an upcoming memoir, “Know My Name,” she details her Stanford University assault case, which became national news, the trial and her recovery. CommentsLink
2019.08.06 13:33 FashBasher1Some news you may have missed out on part 131.
-Pakistan IT services exports registers growth in FY 2018-19 akistan earned $1008.490 million by providing different information technology (IT) services in various countries during the first eleven months of the fiscal year 2018-19. This shows growth of 4.37 percent when compared to $966.240 million earned through provision of services during the corresponding period of fiscal year 2017-18, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) reported. During the period under review, the computer services grew by 12.21 percent, from $654.170 million last year to $734.020 million during July-May (2018-19). -US Team of Experts to Provide Technical Support to Pakistan for the FATF Report Pakistani authorities are ready to submit its compliance report to the joint group of Financial Action Task Force (FATF) on progress in the 27-point action plan. According to the media reports, a high-level meeting was held last week with the participation of both, civilian and military leadership, where the participants reviewed the progress report on the 27-point action plan which has an August 13, 2019 deadline. All the relevant departments were instructed to submit their reports to the Financial Monitoring Unit (FMU) by August 11. Before the submission of the report, a US expert team will reach Islamabad on a four-day visit to provide technical support for complying with the FATF conditions. This visit has been arranged in the wake of Prime Minster Imran Khan’s meeting with US President Donald Trump in which he made a special request to Washington. -Centuries-old Gurdwara opens its doors to pilgrims after seven decades Sikh temple dating back to 1834 inaugurated after almost 70 years of abundance in Jhelum district of Punjab. The Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) hosted the opening ceremony on Friday with an aim to restore the lost glory of the temple. ETPB chairman Dr Aamer Ahmed along with members of the Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (PSGPC) and Sikh leaders attended the ceremony. ‘Gurdwara of the exalted spring’ is located at the northern edge of Rohtas Fort. It memorialises a historic site where Guru Nanak Davji, the founder of Sikh religion, revealed a natural spring, which still spouts water, during his voyage with Bhai Mardana in scorching summers of 1521. -Cutlery exports surge 1.73pc to $91.3m The cutlery exports from the country witnessed an increase of 1.73pc during the financial year 2018-19, as compared to the corresponding period of last year. Pakistan exported cutlery worth $91.325 million during July-June 2018-19, as against the exports of $89.773 million during July-June 2017-18, according to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS). On a year-on-year basis, the cutlery exports from the country during June 2019 witnessed a growth of 2.31pc when compared to the same month of last year. -Karachi clean up project in sights. -China to Assist Pakistan in Eliminating Misdeclaration at Ports Pakistan and China are going to sign an agreement to control misdeclaration at the country’s ports. Chairman Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) Shabbar Zaidi, said, “We have authorized Pakistan’s ambassador to China, Naghmana Hashmi, to sign the draft Memorandum of Understanding (MoU).” Chairman FBR told reporters that under the proposed agreement, China will provide on the spot information regarding exports to Pakistan. “This cooperation on the government to government level will help control misdeclarations,” Zaidi hoped. The decision will strengthen the government’s efforts to control corruption within the customs department systematically. -Govt Finalizes E-Commerce Policy Framework for Online Stores in Pakistan The federal government has finalized E-commerce policy framework to create an enabling environment for holistic growth of e-commerce across all sectors of the country, with a special focus on development and promotion of SMEs to transform Pakistan into a significant player in the regional and global digital economy. According to the draft policy framework prepared by the Commerce Ministry, its main goal is to increase e-commerce industry’s growth to make it one of the key drivers of Pakistan’s economy. The second goal is to streamline regulatory framework for e-commerce businesses in Pakistan, to contribute achieving higher export growth through enhanced activities from e-commerce platforms, to promote small e-businesses and create employment opportunities through digital connectivity for empowering youth, especially in remote areas. In the first quarter of the financial year 2017-18, the number of registered e-commerce merchants was 496 which reached 1,094 by year-end and was around 1,242 by the first quarter of 2018-19. E-commerce transactions processed by these merchants are also increasing proportionately. -Fruit exports increase 4.1pc to $415.9m As many as 768,202 metric tonnes of fruits, worth $415.978 million, were exported from the country during the financial year ended on June 30, 2019, as compared the corresponding period of last year. During the financial year 2018-19, fruit exports from the country witnessed about 4.12pc growth as against the same period of last year, according to the data released by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. In the corresponding period of FY18, the export of fruits was recorded at 696,648 metric tonnes, valuing $399.515 million, it added. However, the data revealed that export of vegetables decreased by 2.31pc as about 1.029 million metric tonnes of vegetables of different kinds, worth $234.845 million, were exported as compared the exports of 880,848 metric tonnes of vegetables, valuing $240.400 million, during the same period last year. On a month-on-month basis, the export of above-mentioned commodities registered a growth as fruit exports grew by 0.94pc in June 2019, as compared the same month of last year. -Plastic imports drop 5.3pc to $2.2bn The import of plastic materials into the country witnessed a decline of 5.30 per cent during the financial year 2018-19, as compared to the corresponding period of last year. Pakistan imported plastic material worth $2.22 billion during July-June 2018-19, as compared to the imports of $2.34 billion during July-June 2017-18, according to the latest data issued by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS). In terms of quantity, Pakistan imported 1,569 metric tonnes of plastic materials during the period under review, as compared to the imports of 1,524 metric tonnes during the corresponding period of last year, showing an increase of 2.90pc. Meanwhile, on a year-on-year basis, plastic imports declined by 18.22pc to $156.413 million in June 2019, as compared to $191.261 million recorded in June 2018. -Govt tightens screws on money laundering The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government took a step forward in fulfilling the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF) requirements on curbing money laundering by getting the Anti-Money Laundering (Amendment) Bill, 2019, approved from the finance committee of the National Assembly. The bill prescribes punishments for offenders and outlines mechanisms for authorities to deal with such crimes. According to the approved bill, violators of the law against money laundering will be subject to a prison sentence of up to 10 years instead of the previous two years, along with a fine of Rs5 million, up from the previous figure of Rs1m. Furthermore, the investigating officer shall be authorised to seek remand of the person for a period of 180 days, up from the previous 90 days, and shall not need to obtain arrest warrants from the court. The offender’s assets will also be seized by authorities. The bill was approved during a session of the committee under the chairmanship of former finance minister Asad Umar. -Sealed for 72 years, ancient Hindu temple in Pakistan opens to worshippers In April this year, Pakistani Hindu community leader Surinder Kumar got the phone call he had been waiting almost two decades to receive. On the line, an official from the state-run Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) offered good news: the government had decided that a 1,000-year-old temple in Kumar’s hometown of Sialkot, sealed for 72 years, would be reopened. The ancient Shawala Teja Singh temple was closed to worshippers after thousands of Hindus fled to India when Britain divided its Indian empire into Muslim Pakistan and mainly Hindu India in 1947. The structure has since been governed by the ETPB in Pakistan, a body responsible for the maintenance of properties abandoned by people who left the newly created Pakistan at Partition. Kumar says he has written hundreds of letters to Pakistani presidents and prime ministers since 2002, pleading that the temple be reopened. In each letter, he penned the same line: “There are close to 100 Hindu families in Sialkot, and only one temple, and that too is closed.” -Iftikhar lund, torturer, removed as Focal person on human rights -For the First Time in FBR’s History, Tax Return Filers Cross 2.1 Million Mark The federal government has successfully increased the number of tax return filers to 2.1 million, the highest in the Federal Board of Revenue’s (FBR) history. Federal Minister for Science and Technology, Fawad Chaudhry, announced this in a tweet on Sunday. Taking on the micro-blogging website, the minister said that FBR’s projected target is to increase the number of returns to 4 million by the end of the current tax year. “So far 2.1 million people have filed their tax returns, which is the highest in FBR’s history. FBR has projected a target to enhance these returns numbers to 4m for the tax year 2019.” The development has come days after Chairman FBR, Shabbar Zaidi, extended the date for filing returns to August 2. -$20 billion investment from Saudi Arabia: Four mega projects including two steel Mills selected For the $20 billion investment from Saudi Arabia , Four mega projects including two steel Mills have been selected to be proposed to Saudi delegation. The country’s first-ever local iron-ore steel mill to be established in Chiniot and another one in Chaghi tops the list of four potential projects selected by the government from across the country for investment by Saudi Arabia, it emerged on Sunday. -KP government decide to establish 11 new tourist sites across the province Senior Minister for Tourism Atif Khan Saturday said that they have already identified eleven new tourists sites, steps have been taken to provide all out facilities to the local and foreign tourists to that scenic places. He said while talking to a delegation of the World Bank which called on him here on Saturday. He said that in the first phase the government would establish tourism zones in Swat, Chitral and Mansehra. He informed the delegation that the government is very much keen to develop roads and make easy access to the tourists to these scenic places. -8 New Oil and Gas wells injected into production system in Pakistan The Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) has injected eight new wells, producing 226,862 barrels crude oil and 3,288 million cubic feet gas, in its production gathering system during the first three quarters of the last fiscal year (FY19). -Japan to provide $5m for agro-industry development The Japanese government has announced a grant of around 560 million Japanese Yen (approximately $5 million) for a United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) project aimed at developing agro-food and agro-industry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Ambassador of Japan to Pakistan Kuninori Matsuda and UNIDO Country Representative Nadia Aftab signed an agreement in this regard on Monday. National Food Security and Research Minister Sahibzada Muhammad Mehboob Sultan and secretary Hashim Popalzai were also presented on the occasion. The grant would be utilised by UNIDO to pilot the enhancement of productive and compliance capacities of relevant actors in the cattle meat value chain within selected production areas/districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Peshawar, Abbottabad, Kohistan and DI Khan) and apple value chain in Balochistan (Killa Saifullah, Killa Abdullah, Pishin and Quetta). The project would simultaneously support the relevant governmental bodies to offer adequate services to the industry in a sustainable manner and ensure the sustainability and the possibility to upscale the best practices. -For the First Time in FBR’s History, Tax Return Filers Cross 2.1 Million Mark The federal government has successfully increased the number of tax return filers to 2.1 million, the highest in the Federal Board of Revenue’s (FBR) history. Federal Minister for Science and Technology, Fawad Chaudhry, announced this in a tweet on Sunday. Taking on the micro-blogging website, the minister said that FBR’s projected target is to increase the number of returns to 4 million by the end of the current tax year. “So far 2.1 million people have filed their tax returns, which is the highest in FBR’s history. FBR has projected a target to enhance these returns numbers to 4m for the tax year 2019.” The development has come days after Chairman FBR, Shabbar Zaidi, extended the date for filing returns to August 2. -Moroccan envoy for boosting trade Ambassador of Morocco Muhammad Karmoune on Monday emphasised the need for making more efforts at government and private-sector levels in Pakistan and Morocco for increasing bilateral trade and investment according to the real potential. “Personally, I am not happy about the trade and investment situation. We, on both sides, need more steps to boost our trade and investment,” he said in comments to media at the Pakistan Stock Exchange. He said for boosting bilateral trade and investment, the embassies of Morocco and Pakistan needed to enhance coordination with each other and help their respective business communities to find trade and investment opportunities. The chambers of commerce and other trade bodies of both countries would have to play a proactive role, which might include exchange of maximum trade delegations and economic data. PSX acting Chief Executive Officer Muhammad Rafiq Umer talked about the functioning of PSX and Casablanca Stock Exchange of Morocco, and proposals for strengthening coordination were discussed in detail. -Pakistan turns to Sri Lanka for dry date exports After imposition of 200% duties by India on Pakistan’s exports during recent escalation of tensions, the latter is shifting towards Sri Lanka for dry date exports. A three-member delegation of date importers from Sri Lanka arrived in Sukkur on an invitation of the Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (TDAP). “After imposition of massive duties by the Indian government on Pakistan’s exports, wherein dry date exports suffered badly, TDAP held consultative sessions with date exporters in order to address their concerns,” said a statement released by TDAP. During the deliberations, it was noted that Pakistan needed to explore an alternative market for the export of its dry dates. As a result, TDAP through Pakistan’s mission in Sri Lanka arranged the visit of date importers to Pakistan from August 4 to 7. The delegation comprises representatives of three major Sri Lankan date importing companies. The delegation will visit the Sukkur Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Agha Qadirdad Date Market, Sukkur, where business-to-business (B2B) meetings with their counterparts would be arranged. -Pakistan seeks Korean investment in CPEC projects Adviser to Prime Minister on Commerce, Textile, Industries, Production and Investment Abdul Razak Dawood has urged South Korean companies to participate in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)-related projects and has also proposed the establishment of an exclusive economic zone for Korean companies as part of CPEC. He invited Korean investors at the Pak-Korea CEO Forum held in Seoul where representatives of top Korean companies were present. Dawood headed a delegation of top players of the textile industry during the visit to South Korea. The visit has now concluded. Speaking at the forum, the PM adviser urged Korean companies to invest in Pakistan because of its improved global ranking in the Ease of Doing Business Index, which went up 11 points. Moreover, he said, Pakistan had launched a programme titled Regulatory Guillotine to improve business regulations in an attempt to attract investment into the country. Through this programme, two to three regulations were being scrapped every month to streamline business activities. He added that Pakistan government had taken various effective steps to improve trade procedures by establishing a better trade facilitation regime. -Pakistan to get 13 million euros from European Union The federal government has decided to initiate a five-year programme 2019-2024 in cooperation with the European Union to ensure rule of law in the country along with good governance, reforms in human rights department and decrease in poverty with a cost of 13 million euros. The draft between Pakistan and European Union on Public Financial Management Support Programme (PFMSP)-2 two has been agreed and EU has responded to Pakistan. The finance ministry has sought final advice from the concerned departments and divisions on the reply sent by EU to finalize the agreement. -Govt to turn regulators friendly to woo investors The government has decided to review existing regulatory regimes and turn regulators friendly in a bid to facilitate domestic and international investors and attract investment. The decision was taken in a recent meeting of the cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Imran Khan. The cabinet decided that the Board of Investment (BOI), in consultation with Adviser to Prime Minister on Institutional Reforms Ishrat Husain, would review the existing regulatory regimes and submit recommendations in line with the policy matrix developed to facilitate international and domestic investors on priority. The subject of regulators came under discussion when the cabinet decided to place them under its administrative control again. -Turkish team shows interest in joint ventures An eight-member Turkish business delegation expressed deep interest in forming joint ventures with their Pakistani counterparts in various fields. The delegation, led by Incubation Istanbul Director Technology Transfer and Project Management Ali Kurt, visited the Islamabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI) as well as the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) on Friday. Delegation members represented various sectors, including automobile, home appliances, information technology, financial technology, LED lights and education.
Peshawar Dating Site, 100% Free Online Dating in Peshawar, IS
Interracial Marriage? Pakistani and Black Couple Q&A (Part ...
Pak Reaction To BB Ki Vines Dating Hutiyapa
2020 Ki Pakistani Dating Apps.Ayen Mein Batati ho Mazey ki ...
pakistani cute college girls dance with boys - YouTube
Karachi Couple Kissing in Public at Petrol Pump Near ...
Pakistani girl dance in car - YouTube
Desi Duo Discuss Close Encounters With Marriage First ...
You Know You're Dating a Pakistani Man When... - YouTube
What Foreigners Think About Pakistan Will You Date A ...
GIRLS ON TINDER IN PAKISTAN - 18+ Reviews Online Dating in Pakistan Part-1 Raana Vines
pakistani cute college girls dance with boys #HotGirls #SchoolGirls #DanceParty #Romance Online Dating In Pakistan . How people use Tinder in Pakistan Raana Vines : GIRLS ON TINDER IN PAKISTAN - 18+ Reviews Online Dating in Pakistan Part-1 Just smile. :') FOLLOW Raana Vines: Make ... For enjoyment Are we married? Do we want kids? You guys asked and we answered! Here is a video about our story: https://youtu.be/P2YwftM9yU4 BE APART OF THE LOVE.RUNS.DEEP... Sadia opens up about her close encounter with marriage and Sean reveals how he got cold feet with his ex right before their wedding. SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE : h... From the 'seduction' to the commitment. Everything you need to know before you date that Pakistani man. We used EPIDEMIC SOUND music for this episode. Use th... Pak Reacts To FUNNY DOUBLE MEANING BOLLYWOOD SONGS AAO RAJA SUNNY LEONE - Duration: 10:01. Pak Reacts 352,732 views Today i will tell you about Pakistani Dating friendship applications Friends yeh apps boht interesting hain but aese video bnany ka maqsad apko galat rasta d... Couple kissing in car At petrol Pump Near ShahraheFaisal VERY FUNNY 😂 Foreigners Guess Pakistani Flag Majid Mushtaq https://youtu.be/480QdSpL81Q This video is about what Foreigners think about Pakistan and Paki...